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Rabbâni Yahudiliğin Temellerini Oluşturan Hillel ve Şammay’ın Hayatı ve Ekolleri

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 1049 - 1069, 25.04.2017

Öz

Mabet yüzyıllar boyunca Yahudiliğin en temel unsuru olagelmiştir. Ancak M.S. 70 yılında II. Mabet’ in Titus tarafından yıkılması sonrasında, Mabet eksenli dini yaklaşım ve uygulamalar ortadan kalkmış ve Yahudi Kutsal Kitabı ile yorumları Yahudiliğin merkezine oturmuştur. Rabbâni Yahudilik olarak ifade edilen bu dini anlayışın temelini Tanah ve yorumu oluşturmaktadır. Hillel ve Şammay bu geçiş döneminde yaşamışlardır. Her ikisi de hayatları ve sonrasında kurucusu oldukları ekolleri vasıtasıyla Rabbâni Yahudiliğin ortaya çıkışı ve gelişimine önemli etki etmişlerdir.  Kurucularının karakterlerinden izler taşıyan bu ekoller sosyolojik zeminleri, eğitim anlayışları, dini uygulamalar konusundaki tutumları başta olmak üzere pek çok açıdan birbirinden farklılık göstermektedir.  

Kaynakça

  • Araz, Ömer Faruk, Yahudilikte Midraşik Literatürün Tarihsel Gelişimi, Basılmamış Doktora Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, 2016. ________ , “Rabbani Yahudiliğin İlk Yorum Prensipleri: Hillel’in Yedi Yorum Kuralı”, İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, c.V, sayı 2, 2016, ss.321-337. ________ , “Rabbani Gelenekte Rabbi Yişmael’in Tevrat Tefsiri İçin Oluşturduğu On üç Yorum Kuralı”, Marmara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, c.LI, Aralık 2016, s. 115-134. Bacher, Wilhelm, “Hillel”, The Jewish Encyclopaedia (JE), c.VI, ss.397-399. ________ , “Academies in Palestine”, JE, c.I, s.147. Blidstein, Gerald Y. - Isaac Levitats, “Nasi”, EJ, c. XIV, s.784-785. Boccaccini, Gabriele, Roots of Rabbinic Judaism, Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Comp., 2002. Brown, Francis ve S.R. Driver, C.A. Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of The Old Testament, New York: The Riverside Press, 1906. Buxbaum, Yitzhak, The Life and Teachings of Hillel, New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1992. Chan, Man Ki, A Comparative Study Of Jewish Commentaries And Patristic Literature On The Book Of Ruth, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, University of Pretoria, 2010. Dov Gilat, Yitzhak, “Soferim”, EJ, c.XVIII, s.743-744. Editorial Staff, “Av Bet Din”, EJ, c. II, s. 716-717. Flusser, David, Judaism of the Second Temple Period, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2009, c. I-II. Glatzer, Nahum N., Hillel the Elder: The Emergence of Classical Judaism, New York: Schocken Books, 1956. Goldin, Judah, “Hillel the Elder”, The Journal of Religion, vol.26, no.4 (Oct., 1946), 263-277. Guttman, Alexander, Rabbinic Judaism in the Making, Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1970. Herr, Moshe David, “Shammai”, EJ, c.XVIII, s.394. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Shammai, (Erişim Tarihi: 15.11.2016). https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/hillel.html, (Erişim Tarihi: 02.10.2016). Kaminka, Armand, “Hillel’s Life and Work”, The Jewish Quarterly Review (JQR), New Series, v.30, no.2 (Oct., 1939), ss.107-122. Krauss, Samuel, Babylonia, JE, c.II, ss.401-415. Lauterbach, Jacob Zallel, “Zugot”, JE, c.XII, s. 698. ________ , Midrash and Mishnah: A Study ın the Early History of the Halaḥah, New York: The Bloch Publishing Company, 1916. _________ , “Shammai”, JE, c.XI, s.230. ________ , “Tannaim and Amoraim”, JE, c.XII, s.49. Mendelsohn, S., “Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai”, JE, c.III, ss.115-116. Midrash Rabbah, (ed. H. Friedman, Maurice Simon), London: Soncino Press, 1939, c.I-X. Miller, Stuart S., “Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai”, Encyclopaedia of Religion (ER), c.VI, s.3981. Mişna, www.mechon-mamre.org. Moore, George Foot, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era The Age of the Tannaim, USA: Harvard Un. Press, 1927. Neusner, Jacob, The Rabbinic Traditions About The Pharisees Before 70, Leiden: Brill, 1971, c.I-III. ________ , “The History of Earlier Rabbinic Judaism: Some New Approaches”, History of Religions, 16:3 (1977: Feb), ss.216-236. ________ , Understanding Rabbinic Judaism, New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1974. ________ , Social Teaching of Rabbinic Judaism, Leiden: Brill, 2001, c.I-II. ________ , The Four Stages of Rabbinic Judaism, London and New York: Routledge, 2002. Newman, Jacob, Halakik Sources: From the Beginning to the Ninth Century, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1969. Roth, Daniel, “The Ninth of Adar: The Day Constructive Conflict Turned Destructive”, http://pcjcr.pardes.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/The-Ninth-of-Adar-by-Daniel-Roth.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 06.05.2015). Safrai, Chana, "Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai.",Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/bet-hillel-and-bet-shammai, (Erişim Tarihi: 15.11.2016). Schiffmann, Lawrence H., From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1991. ________ , Understanding Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 2003. Sifre A Tannaitic Commentary on the Book of Deuteronomy, terc. Reuven Hammer, New York: Yale Un. Press, 1986. Sperber, Daniel, “Tannaim” Encyclopaedia Judaica (EJ), c.XIX, s.505. Strack, H.L. ve G. Stemberger, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, terc. Marcus Bockmuehl, Edinburg: T & T Clark, 1991. Talmud Babylonian, (ed. Isidore Epstein), London: The Soncino Press, 1978. The Jerusalem Talmud: a translation and commentary, (ed. Jacob Neusner), Hendrickson Publishers, 2008. Tosefta, www.mechon-mamre.org. Ulmer, Rivka, Egyptian Cultural Icons in Midrash, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. Urbach, Ephraim E., The Sages Their Concepts and Beliefs, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1975, c.I-II. Wald, Stephen G., “Hillel”, Encyclopaedia Judaica (EJ) (Encyclopaedia Hebraica’dan), c.IX, ss.108-110. Zeitlin, Solomon, “Hillel and the Hermeneutic Rules”, JQR, New Series, Vol.54, No.2 (Oct., 1963), ss.161-173. ________ , “Sameias and Pollion”, Journal of Jewish Lore and Philosophy, Vol.1, No.1 (January 1919), ss.61-67.

The Life and Schools of Hillel and Shammai, the Founders of Rabbinic Judaism

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 1049 - 1069, 25.04.2017

Öz

The Temple has been the most basic element of Judaism for centuries. But after the destruction of the Second Temple at A.D. 70 by Titus, Temple-oriented religious approaches and practices have ceased to exist, and Tanah and its interpretations are at the center of Judaism. Tanah and its interpretation constitute the basis of this religious understanding expressed as the Rabbinic Judaism. Hillel and Shammai lived in this transition period. Both have had a significant impact on the emergence and development of Rabbinic Judaism through their lives and the schools which Hillel and Shammai were founders of these schools. These schools, which bear traces of the characters of their founders, differ from each other in many respects, especially their sociological grounds, educational approaches, attitudes towards religious practices. In this article, intended to better understanding of the religious structures of the time when Rabbinic Judaism emerged, by explaining the lifes of Hillel and Shammai and the basic features and opinions their schools.

Kaynakça

  • Araz, Ömer Faruk, Yahudilikte Midraşik Literatürün Tarihsel Gelişimi, Basılmamış Doktora Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul, 2016. ________ , “Rabbani Yahudiliğin İlk Yorum Prensipleri: Hillel’in Yedi Yorum Kuralı”, İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, c.V, sayı 2, 2016, ss.321-337. ________ , “Rabbani Gelenekte Rabbi Yişmael’in Tevrat Tefsiri İçin Oluşturduğu On üç Yorum Kuralı”, Marmara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, c.LI, Aralık 2016, s. 115-134. Bacher, Wilhelm, “Hillel”, The Jewish Encyclopaedia (JE), c.VI, ss.397-399. ________ , “Academies in Palestine”, JE, c.I, s.147. Blidstein, Gerald Y. - Isaac Levitats, “Nasi”, EJ, c. XIV, s.784-785. Boccaccini, Gabriele, Roots of Rabbinic Judaism, Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Comp., 2002. Brown, Francis ve S.R. Driver, C.A. Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of The Old Testament, New York: The Riverside Press, 1906. Buxbaum, Yitzhak, The Life and Teachings of Hillel, New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1992. Chan, Man Ki, A Comparative Study Of Jewish Commentaries And Patristic Literature On The Book Of Ruth, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, University of Pretoria, 2010. Dov Gilat, Yitzhak, “Soferim”, EJ, c.XVIII, s.743-744. Editorial Staff, “Av Bet Din”, EJ, c. II, s. 716-717. Flusser, David, Judaism of the Second Temple Period, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2009, c. I-II. Glatzer, Nahum N., Hillel the Elder: The Emergence of Classical Judaism, New York: Schocken Books, 1956. Goldin, Judah, “Hillel the Elder”, The Journal of Religion, vol.26, no.4 (Oct., 1946), 263-277. Guttman, Alexander, Rabbinic Judaism in the Making, Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1970. Herr, Moshe David, “Shammai”, EJ, c.XVIII, s.394. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Shammai, (Erişim Tarihi: 15.11.2016). https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/hillel.html, (Erişim Tarihi: 02.10.2016). Kaminka, Armand, “Hillel’s Life and Work”, The Jewish Quarterly Review (JQR), New Series, v.30, no.2 (Oct., 1939), ss.107-122. Krauss, Samuel, Babylonia, JE, c.II, ss.401-415. Lauterbach, Jacob Zallel, “Zugot”, JE, c.XII, s. 698. ________ , Midrash and Mishnah: A Study ın the Early History of the Halaḥah, New York: The Bloch Publishing Company, 1916. _________ , “Shammai”, JE, c.XI, s.230. ________ , “Tannaim and Amoraim”, JE, c.XII, s.49. Mendelsohn, S., “Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai”, JE, c.III, ss.115-116. Midrash Rabbah, (ed. H. Friedman, Maurice Simon), London: Soncino Press, 1939, c.I-X. Miller, Stuart S., “Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai”, Encyclopaedia of Religion (ER), c.VI, s.3981. Mişna, www.mechon-mamre.org. Moore, George Foot, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era The Age of the Tannaim, USA: Harvard Un. Press, 1927. Neusner, Jacob, The Rabbinic Traditions About The Pharisees Before 70, Leiden: Brill, 1971, c.I-III. ________ , “The History of Earlier Rabbinic Judaism: Some New Approaches”, History of Religions, 16:3 (1977: Feb), ss.216-236. ________ , Understanding Rabbinic Judaism, New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1974. ________ , Social Teaching of Rabbinic Judaism, Leiden: Brill, 2001, c.I-II. ________ , The Four Stages of Rabbinic Judaism, London and New York: Routledge, 2002. Newman, Jacob, Halakik Sources: From the Beginning to the Ninth Century, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1969. Roth, Daniel, “The Ninth of Adar: The Day Constructive Conflict Turned Destructive”, http://pcjcr.pardes.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/The-Ninth-of-Adar-by-Daniel-Roth.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 06.05.2015). Safrai, Chana, "Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai.",Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia, http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/bet-hillel-and-bet-shammai, (Erişim Tarihi: 15.11.2016). Schiffmann, Lawrence H., From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1991. ________ , Understanding Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 2003. Sifre A Tannaitic Commentary on the Book of Deuteronomy, terc. Reuven Hammer, New York: Yale Un. Press, 1986. Sperber, Daniel, “Tannaim” Encyclopaedia Judaica (EJ), c.XIX, s.505. Strack, H.L. ve G. Stemberger, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, terc. Marcus Bockmuehl, Edinburg: T & T Clark, 1991. Talmud Babylonian, (ed. Isidore Epstein), London: The Soncino Press, 1978. The Jerusalem Talmud: a translation and commentary, (ed. Jacob Neusner), Hendrickson Publishers, 2008. Tosefta, www.mechon-mamre.org. Ulmer, Rivka, Egyptian Cultural Icons in Midrash, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. Urbach, Ephraim E., The Sages Their Concepts and Beliefs, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1975, c.I-II. Wald, Stephen G., “Hillel”, Encyclopaedia Judaica (EJ) (Encyclopaedia Hebraica’dan), c.IX, ss.108-110. Zeitlin, Solomon, “Hillel and the Hermeneutic Rules”, JQR, New Series, Vol.54, No.2 (Oct., 1963), ss.161-173. ________ , “Sameias and Pollion”, Journal of Jewish Lore and Philosophy, Vol.1, No.1 (January 1919), ss.61-67.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ömer Faruk ARAZ
0000-0002-7425-4164
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Nisan 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 22 Mayıs 2017
Kabul Tarihi 28 Mayıs 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Araz, Ö. F. (2017). Rabbâni Yahudiliğin Temellerini Oluşturan Hillel ve Şammay’ın Hayatı ve Ekolleri . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (2) , 1049-1069 . Retrieved from https://www.itobiad.com/tr/pub/issue/28774/315338
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Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.