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The Saar Status Referendum : A Review of Nazi Postcard Propaganda in 1935

Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4, 3282 - 3315, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.927733

Öz

The use of postcards as propaganda material as a means of ‘political communication’ with the commonisation of communication areas within another social science field of political history, which is a sub-field of study of the discipline of international relations, is the field of study of this article. Versailles was the first peace treaty signed by the states of the Alliance, which met at the Peace Conference in Paris on June 28, 1919, when the 1st World War continued. Chancellor Scheidmann, who found the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles in Paris unacceptable, declared that the treaty was a mortgage on the future of the German republic, was considered justified by the German people. The National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP), which came to power in Germany on January 30, 1933, directed it to unite its political power with its diaspora with its propaganda aimed at nationally strengthening the ari race Germans it identified. On 13 January 1935, a referendum on Saar status was voted on in the Saarland under the administration of the League of Nations on three different options. Prior to the referendum, the Nazis conducted an intense propaganda campaign against the German diaspora through the German Ministry of Public Information and Propaganda to ensure the participation of the Saarland in Germany. During the Nazi era, postcards were first made propaganda material in this referendum. In this study, thirteen postcards used by the Nazis for propaganda purposes against the German diaspora in the Saarland before and after the Saarland status referendum and identified as samples were analyzed using semiotics using the Organon model of German linguist Karl Bühler. In the findings, it was revealed that the postcards tried to convince the perception that the Saarland would be liberated and that the Saarland people would be at peace with the ‘Strong Germany’ when the Saarland joined Germany. As a result of the analysis, German propaganda, including postcards, influenced the sensitivity of the Saarland people following political processes in Europe and the structure fed by socio-cultural values. In addition to the promotion of Germanic nationalism created by German national elements, the ‘heavy contractor of the bill of war’ and ‘victimization’ situation caused by the Treaty of Versailles at the end of the 1st World War affected the referendum result in favor of Germany. Therefore, the Saar referendum was considered a propaganda success of the ruling NSDAP and was a political and economic process that gave impetus to the rise of Nazism.

Kaynakça

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Saar Statü Referandumu: 1935 yılında Nazi Kartpostal Propagandası Üzerine İnceleme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4, 3282 - 3315, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.927733

Öz

Uluslararası İlişkiler disiplininin alt çalışma alanlarından olan Siyasi Tarih’in diğer bir sosyal bilimler çalışma alanı içinde yer alan iletişim alanlarının ortaklaşmasıyla ‘siyasal iletişim’ aracı olarak kartpostalların propaganda malzemesi olarak kullanılması, bu makalenin çalışma alanıdır. Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın devam ettiği 28 Haziran 1919 tarihinde Paris’te Barış Konferansında toplanan İttifak Devletleri’nin ilk imzaladığı barış antlaşması Versay’dır. Paris’teki Versay Antlaşması hükümlerini kabul edilmez bularak, antlaşmanın Alman cumhuriyetinin geleceğine konulmuş bir ipotek olduğu beyan eden Şansölye Scheidmann, Alman halkı tarafından haklı görülmüştü. Almanya’da 30 Ocak 1933 günü iktidara gelen Nasyonel Sosyalist Alman İşçi Partisi (NSDAP), tanımladığı ari ırk Germenleri milli olarak güçlendirmeye yönelik propagandalarıyla siyasi gücünü diasporasıyla birleştirmeye yöneltmiştir. 13 Ocak 1935 tarihinde Milletler Cemiyeti’nin yönetiminde bulunan Saarland’da Saar Statü Referandumu üç farklı seçenek üzerine oylanmıştır. Referandum öncesinde Naziler, Saarland’ın Almanya’ya katılımını sağlamak için Almanya Halkı Aydınlatma ve Propaganda Bakanlığı üzerinden Alman diasporasına yönelik yoğun bir propaganda kampanyası gerçekleştirmiştir. Nazi döneminde kartpostallar ilk kez bu referandumda propaganda malzemesi yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada Saarland Statü Referandumu öncesi ve sonrasında Nazilerin Saarland’daki Alman diasporasına yönelik propaganda amaçlı kullanılan ve araştırmada örneklem olarak belirlenen onüç adet kartpostal, Alman dilbilimci Karl Bühler’in Organon Modeli üzerinden göstergebilim yöntemiyle analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgularda, kartpostallar üzerinden Saarland’ın Almanya’ya katılmasıyla ‘Güçlü Almanya’ ile Saarland’ın özgürleşeceğine ve Saarland halkının huzura kavuşacağına yönelik algılarla ikna edilmeye çalışıldığı anlaşılmaktadır. Analiz sonucunda kartpostalların da yer aldığı Almanya propagandası, Saarland halkının Avrupa’daki siyasi süreçleri takip eden duyarlılığını ve sosyo-kültürel değerlerden beslenen yapısını etkilemiştir. Propaganda da Alman milli ögeleriyle yaratılan Germen milliyetçiliğin yükseltilmesinin yanısıra, Birinci Dünya Savaşı sonunda Versay Antlaşmasının meydana getirdiği ‘savaşın faturasının ağır yüklenicisi’ ve ‘mağduriyet’ durumu referandum sonucunu Almanya lehine etkilemiştir. Bu nedenle Saar referandumu, iktidardaki NSDAP’nin propaganda başarısı olarak kabul edilerek, Nazizm’in yükselişine ivme kazandıran siyasi ve ekonomik bir süreç olarak değerlendirilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abrahamsson, C. (2013). On the Genealogy of Lebensraum. Geographica Helvetica, 68(1), 37-44.
  • Apendiyev, T. A., Abdukadyrov, N. M., & Kubeyev, R. D. (2019). History of German Diaspora in Kazakhstan in the Context of Migration System. Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci, 13(4), 127-134.
  • Baranowski, S. (2016). Legacies of Lebensraum: German Identity and Multi-Ethnicity. Ed. Manuel Borutta and Jan C. Jansen. In Vertriebene and Pieds-Noirs in Postwar Germany and France (pp. 35-52). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Bedjaoui, M.(1994). The New World Order and the Security Council: Testing the Legality of Its Acts .Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Bergen, D. L. (1994). The Nazi Concept of 'Volksdeutsche' and the Exacerbation of Anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe, 1939-45. Journal of Contemporary History, 29(4), 569-582.
  • Bie, Y.(2016). The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany. SHS ICITCE 2 shsconf/20162502022https://www.shs-conferences.org/articles/shsconf/pdf/2016/03/shsconf_icitce2016_02022.pdf
  • Blanke, R. (1990). The German Minority in inter-war Poland and German Foreign Policy—Some Reconsiderations. Journal of Contemporary History, 25(1), 87-102.
  • Blood, P. W. (2010). Securing Hitler's Lebensraum: The Luftwaffe and Białowieża Forest, 1942–1944. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 24(2), 247-272.
  • Callagher, M (2014). The Saar Plebiscite, 1935. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  • Caplan, Jane (2012). Hitler Almanyası (1933-1945), Çev. İdem Erman, İnkılap Kitabevi, 1.Baskı, İstanbul.
  • Carlson, C.K.(2016). The Saarland votes to rejoin Germany. The Deseret News Jan 14, 2016,
  • Cordell, K. (2009). Memory, Identity and Poland's German Minority. German Politics and Society, 27(4), 1-23.
  • Cornwall, M. (1992). Dr Edvard Beneš and Czechoslovakia’s German Minority, 1918–1943. Ed. John Morison. In The Czech and Slovak Experience (pp. 167-202). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Çankaya, E. (2019). Siyasal İletişim Dünyada ve Türkiye’de. İmge Kitabevi. 2019.Ankara
  • Çetinkaya, G . (2019). İkinci Dünya Savaşı Öncesinde Nazilerin İktidara Gelişi ve Türk-Alman İlişkileri . Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler ve Eğitim Dergisi ,1(1),87-97. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/usbed/issue/48285/594892
  • Eldem, E.(2014). 1.Dünya Savaşı’nda İttifak Cephesinde Savaş ve Propaganda Koç Üniversitesi Anadolu Medeniyetleri Araştırma Merkezi, Vehbi Koç Vakfı.
  • Erol, E. (2020). Nazi Almanya’sında Yayıncılık, Nazizm İdeolojisinin Yaydığı Anti-Semitist Söylemlerin İnşası ve Kitapların Propaganda Amaçlı Kullanımı. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 34(4), 693-722.
  • Erdoğan, A. (2016). Versay Antlaşması: Almanya’nın Sınırları ve Avrupa için siyasi hükümler. Retrieved from https://www.tuicakademi.org/versay-antlamasi-almanyanin-sinirlari/
  • E. W. (1952). The Saar as an International Problem. The World Today,8(7), 299-307. Retrieved August 27, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40392581
  • Facing History and Ourselves. https://www.facinghistory.org/educator-resources Erişim Tarihi: 21.08.2021.
  • Florinsky A. (19234). The Saar Struggle. N.Y. Macmillan.
  • Guiraud, P. (2016). Göstergebilim. İmge Kitabevi.
  • Graafland, P. (2012). Government Policies on the Development Potential of the Bosnian Diaspora in Germany. The Interdisciplinary Journal of International Studies, 8, 1-22.
  • Grabowski, A.& Sante, G.W. (1934). Die Grundlagen des Saar-kampfes. Berlin. Heymanns.
  • Greenwood, H. Powys (1935). Lessons of the Saar. The Spectator. Retrieved 21.08.2021.
  • Grunberger, R.(2014).The 12-Year Reich: A Social History of Nazi Germany, 1933–1945 . New York: Henry Holt & Com.
  • Halas, M. (2014). Searching for the Perfect Footnote: Friedrich Ratzel and the Others at the Roots of Lebensraum. Geopolitics, 19(1), 1-18.
  • Hansen, H. H. (2012). Zur politischen Vertretung der deutschen Minderheit in Dänemark nach der Kommunalreform von 2007. Europäisches Journal für Minderheitenfragen, 5(3), 181-186.
  • Henlein, K. (1936). The German Minority in Czechoslovakia. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1931-1939), 15(4), 561-572.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Beşeri Bilimler, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Elif Hatun ÖNAL - KILIÇBEYLİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
ADANA BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ ; ADANA BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8263-2009
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 21 Aralık 2021
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 25 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 3 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 10, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Önal - Kılıçbeyli, E. H. (2021). Saar Statü Referandumu: 1935 yılında Nazi Kartpostal Propagandası Üzerine İnceleme . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 10 (4) , 3282-3315 . DOI: 10.15869/itobiad.927733
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Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.