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Ethnic Tourism in the Context of Its Relationship with Intangible Cultural Heritage

Yıl 2019, Cilt 8, Sayı 1, 671 - 684, 30.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.531408

Öz

Authentic aspects of ethnic diversities and ethnic cultures have always attracted the attention of individuals. This attraction has uncovered the travels aimed at experiencing ethnic cultures and cultural elements. These travels that are called ethnic tourism aim to experience the lifestyles, customs and traditions of ethnic groups. Relevant studies have propounded that there is a direct relationship between ethnic tourism and intangible cultural heritage. In this study, the concept of ethnic tourism was defined and its relationships with intangible cultural heritage were analyzed. Being a subtype of cultural tourism; ethnic tourism plays an important role in protecting the intangible cultural heritage that belongs to ethnic groups and handing it down the next generations. However, unplanned ethnic tourism activities have negative impacts such as damaging intangible cultural heritage and losing authentic values for good.       

Kaynakça

  • Aleksandrova, A.,Aigina, E. (2014). Ethno-tourism research in lovozero, murmansk region, Russia. In SHS Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 12, 1036-1044.
  • Bachleitner, R., Zins, A. H. (1999). Cultural tourism in rural communities: The residents’ perspective. Journal of business research, 44(3), 199-209.
  • Basat, E. M. (2013). Somut ve Somut Olmayan Kültürel Mirasi Birlikte Koruyabilmek. Milli Folklor, 25(100), 60-71.
  • Besculides, A., Lee, M. E., McCormick, P. J. (2002). Residents' perceptions of the cultural benefits of tourism. Annals of tourism research, 29(2), 303-319.
  • Brubaker, R. (2002). Ethnicity without groups. European Journal of Sociology/Archives européennes de sociologie, 43(2), 163-189.
  • Brubaker, R., Loveman, M., Stamatov, P. (2004). Ethnicity as cognition. Theory and society, 33(1), 31-64.
  • Bujdosó, Z., Dávid, L., Tőzsér, A., Kovács, G., Major-Kathi, V., Uakhitova, G., ...Vasvári, M. (2015). Basis of heritagization and cultural tourism development. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 188, 307-315.
  • Diker, O. (2016). Kültürel Miras İle Kültürel Miras Turizmi Kavramları Üzerine Kavramsal Bir Çalışma. Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 4, 365-374.
  • Esman, M. R. (1984). Tourism as ethnic preservation: The Cajuns of Louisiana. Annals of tourism research, 11(3), 451-467.
  • Harkin, M. (1995). Modernist anthropology and tourism of the authentic. Annals of tourism research, 22(3), 650-670.
  • Henderson, J. (2003). Ethnic heritage as a tourist attraction: The Peranakans of Singapore. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 9(1), 27-44.
  • Hitchcock, M. (1999). Tourism and ethnicity: Situational perspectives. International journal of tourism research, 1(1), 17-32.
  • Jamison, D. (1999). Tourism and ethnicity: The brotherhood of coconuts. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 944-967.
  • Jamontaite, K.,Akova, O. (2016). Litvanya Karay Türklerinin Etnik Turizm Potansiyelinin İncelenmesi, Turar Turizm & Araştırma Dergisi, 5(1), 30-52.
  • Jokilehto, J. (2005). Definition of cultural heritage: References to documents in history. ICCROM Working Group ‘Heritage and Society, 4-8.
  • Krasnoyarova, B. A., Indyukova, M. A.,Garms, E. O. (2017). The ethnocultural component of tourism development in the Altai Republic. Geography and Natural Resources, 38(2), 165-172.
  • Lan, W. A. N. G. (2003). On the Exploitation of the Folkloric Tourist Resources in Yunnan [J]. Journal of Yunnan University for Nationalities (Social Sciences), 3.
  • Li, J. (2004). Molding Dai-ness on Chinaís Periphery: Ethnic Tourism and the Politics of Identity Construction in Contemporary Xishuang Banna. PhD dissertation. University of Pennsylvania.
  • Li, Y., Hinch, T. (1997). Ethnic tourism attractions and their prospect for sustainable development at two sites in China and Canada. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2(1), 5-18.
  • Liebkind, K. (1992). Ethnic identity: Challenging the boundaries of social psychology. In G. Breakwell (Ed.), Social psychology of identity and the self-concept (pp. 147–185). London: Academic.
  • Medina, L. K. (2003). Commoditizing culture: Tourism and Maya identity. Annals of tourism research, 30(2), 353-368.
  • Oğuz, M. Ö. (2013). Terim olarak somut olmayan kültürel miras. Milli Folklor, 25(100), 5-13.
  • Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K.,Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well‐being: An interactional perspective. Journal of social issues, 57(3), 493-510.
  • Pitchford, S. R. (1995). Ethnic tourism and nationalism in Wales. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(1), 35-52.
  • Ram, Y., Björk, P., Weidenfeld, A. (2016). Authenticity and place attachment of major visitor attractions. Tourism Management, 52, 110-122.
  • Ruhanen, L., Whitford, M.,McLennan, C. L. (2015). Indigenous tourism in Australia: Time for a reality check. Tourism Management, 48, 73-83.
  • Ryan, C., Huyton, J. (2002). Tourists and aboriginal people. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 631-647.
  • Silberberg, T. (1995). Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and heritage sites. Tourism management, 16(5), 361-365.
  • Smith, V. L. (Ed.). (1989). Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. University of Pennsylvania Press., USA.
  • UNESCO (2003). Convention fort he Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, (MISC/2003/CLT/CH/14), Paris, 17 October.
  • UNESCO (2011). What is Intangible Cultural Heritage? United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Intangible Cultural Heritage https://ich.unesco.org/doc/src/01851-EN.pdf 19.01.2019
  • UNWTO (2018). Tourism and Culture Synergies. United Nations World Tourism Organization, Madrid Spain.
  • Van den Berghe, P. L. (1995). Marketing Mayas: ethnic tourism promotion in Mexico. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(3), 568-588.
  • Vašĕka, I.,Vašĕka, M. (2003). Recent Romani migration from Slovakia to EU member states: Romani reaction to discrimination or Romani ethno-tourism?. Nationalities Papers, 31(1), 27-45.
  • Wu, X. (2000). Ethnic Tourism--A Helicopter from" Huge Graveyard" to Paradise?. Hmong Studies Journal, 3(Winter), 1-33.
  • Yalçıner, R. (2014). Etnisite ve Milliyetçilik: Eleştirel Bir Değerlendirme. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 69(01), 189-215.
  • Yang, L. (2007). Planning for ethnic tourism: Case studies from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China.Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
  • Yang, L. (2011). Ethnic tourism and cultural representation. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 561-585.
  • Yang, L., Wall, G. (2009). Minorities and tourism: community perspectives from Yunnan, China. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 7(2), 77-98.
  • Yang, L., Wall, G., Smith, S. L. (2008). Ethnic tourism development:: Chinese Government Perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), 751-771.
  • Zhu, Y. (2012). Performing heritage: Rethinking authenticity in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1495-1513.
  • Zorilla, J. J. (2000). Authenticity in the context of ethnic tourism: the local perspective, Travel and Tourism Research Association Whitehorse, Canada, September 17-19, 120-126.

Somut Olmayan Kültürel Miras ile İlişkisi Bağlamında Etnik Turizm

Yıl 2019, Cilt 8, Sayı 1, 671 - 684, 30.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.531408

Öz

Etnik çeşitlilik ve etnik kültürlerin otantik yanları insanlar için çekici olmuştur. Bu çekicilik etnik kültürler ile kültürel öğeleri deneyimlemeye yönelik seyahatleri ortaya çıkarmıştır. Etnik turizm olarak adlandırılan bu seyahatler, etnik grupların yaşam tarzları, örf, adet, gelenek ve göreneklerini deneyimleme amacıyla gerçekleştirilen seyahatler olarak tanımlanmaktadır. İlgili çalışmalar, etnik turizmin somut olmayan kültürel miras ile doğrudan ilişkili olduğu sonucunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bu çalışmada etnik turizm kavramı tanımlanarak, somut olmayan kültürel miras ile olan ilişkileri incelenmiştir. Kültür turizminin bir türü olarak etnik turizm, etnik gruplara ait somut olmayan kültürel mirasın korunması ve gelecek nesillere aktarılmasında önemli bir yere sahiptir. Fakat plansız etnik turizm faaliyetleri ise somut olmayan kültürel mirasın zarar görmesi, özgün değerlerin yitmesi ve yok olması sonuçlarını doğurmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Aleksandrova, A.,Aigina, E. (2014). Ethno-tourism research in lovozero, murmansk region, Russia. In SHS Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 12, 1036-1044.
  • Bachleitner, R., Zins, A. H. (1999). Cultural tourism in rural communities: The residents’ perspective. Journal of business research, 44(3), 199-209.
  • Basat, E. M. (2013). Somut ve Somut Olmayan Kültürel Mirasi Birlikte Koruyabilmek. Milli Folklor, 25(100), 60-71.
  • Besculides, A., Lee, M. E., McCormick, P. J. (2002). Residents' perceptions of the cultural benefits of tourism. Annals of tourism research, 29(2), 303-319.
  • Brubaker, R. (2002). Ethnicity without groups. European Journal of Sociology/Archives européennes de sociologie, 43(2), 163-189.
  • Brubaker, R., Loveman, M., Stamatov, P. (2004). Ethnicity as cognition. Theory and society, 33(1), 31-64.
  • Bujdosó, Z., Dávid, L., Tőzsér, A., Kovács, G., Major-Kathi, V., Uakhitova, G., ...Vasvári, M. (2015). Basis of heritagization and cultural tourism development. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 188, 307-315.
  • Diker, O. (2016). Kültürel Miras İle Kültürel Miras Turizmi Kavramları Üzerine Kavramsal Bir Çalışma. Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 4, 365-374.
  • Esman, M. R. (1984). Tourism as ethnic preservation: The Cajuns of Louisiana. Annals of tourism research, 11(3), 451-467.
  • Harkin, M. (1995). Modernist anthropology and tourism of the authentic. Annals of tourism research, 22(3), 650-670.
  • Henderson, J. (2003). Ethnic heritage as a tourist attraction: The Peranakans of Singapore. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 9(1), 27-44.
  • Hitchcock, M. (1999). Tourism and ethnicity: Situational perspectives. International journal of tourism research, 1(1), 17-32.
  • Jamison, D. (1999). Tourism and ethnicity: The brotherhood of coconuts. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 944-967.
  • Jamontaite, K.,Akova, O. (2016). Litvanya Karay Türklerinin Etnik Turizm Potansiyelinin İncelenmesi, Turar Turizm & Araştırma Dergisi, 5(1), 30-52.
  • Jokilehto, J. (2005). Definition of cultural heritage: References to documents in history. ICCROM Working Group ‘Heritage and Society, 4-8.
  • Krasnoyarova, B. A., Indyukova, M. A.,Garms, E. O. (2017). The ethnocultural component of tourism development in the Altai Republic. Geography and Natural Resources, 38(2), 165-172.
  • Lan, W. A. N. G. (2003). On the Exploitation of the Folkloric Tourist Resources in Yunnan [J]. Journal of Yunnan University for Nationalities (Social Sciences), 3.
  • Li, J. (2004). Molding Dai-ness on Chinaís Periphery: Ethnic Tourism and the Politics of Identity Construction in Contemporary Xishuang Banna. PhD dissertation. University of Pennsylvania.
  • Li, Y., Hinch, T. (1997). Ethnic tourism attractions and their prospect for sustainable development at two sites in China and Canada. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2(1), 5-18.
  • Liebkind, K. (1992). Ethnic identity: Challenging the boundaries of social psychology. In G. Breakwell (Ed.), Social psychology of identity and the self-concept (pp. 147–185). London: Academic.
  • Medina, L. K. (2003). Commoditizing culture: Tourism and Maya identity. Annals of tourism research, 30(2), 353-368.
  • Oğuz, M. Ö. (2013). Terim olarak somut olmayan kültürel miras. Milli Folklor, 25(100), 5-13.
  • Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K.,Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well‐being: An interactional perspective. Journal of social issues, 57(3), 493-510.
  • Pitchford, S. R. (1995). Ethnic tourism and nationalism in Wales. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(1), 35-52.
  • Ram, Y., Björk, P., Weidenfeld, A. (2016). Authenticity and place attachment of major visitor attractions. Tourism Management, 52, 110-122.
  • Ruhanen, L., Whitford, M.,McLennan, C. L. (2015). Indigenous tourism in Australia: Time for a reality check. Tourism Management, 48, 73-83.
  • Ryan, C., Huyton, J. (2002). Tourists and aboriginal people. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 631-647.
  • Silberberg, T. (1995). Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and heritage sites. Tourism management, 16(5), 361-365.
  • Smith, V. L. (Ed.). (1989). Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. University of Pennsylvania Press., USA.
  • UNESCO (2003). Convention fort he Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, (MISC/2003/CLT/CH/14), Paris, 17 October.
  • UNESCO (2011). What is Intangible Cultural Heritage? United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Intangible Cultural Heritage https://ich.unesco.org/doc/src/01851-EN.pdf 19.01.2019
  • UNWTO (2018). Tourism and Culture Synergies. United Nations World Tourism Organization, Madrid Spain.
  • Van den Berghe, P. L. (1995). Marketing Mayas: ethnic tourism promotion in Mexico. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(3), 568-588.
  • Vašĕka, I.,Vašĕka, M. (2003). Recent Romani migration from Slovakia to EU member states: Romani reaction to discrimination or Romani ethno-tourism?. Nationalities Papers, 31(1), 27-45.
  • Wu, X. (2000). Ethnic Tourism--A Helicopter from" Huge Graveyard" to Paradise?. Hmong Studies Journal, 3(Winter), 1-33.
  • Yalçıner, R. (2014). Etnisite ve Milliyetçilik: Eleştirel Bir Değerlendirme. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 69(01), 189-215.
  • Yang, L. (2007). Planning for ethnic tourism: Case studies from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China.Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
  • Yang, L. (2011). Ethnic tourism and cultural representation. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 561-585.
  • Yang, L., Wall, G. (2009). Minorities and tourism: community perspectives from Yunnan, China. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 7(2), 77-98.
  • Yang, L., Wall, G., Smith, S. L. (2008). Ethnic tourism development:: Chinese Government Perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), 751-771.
  • Zhu, Y. (2012). Performing heritage: Rethinking authenticity in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1495-1513.
  • Zorilla, J. J. (2000). Authenticity in the context of ethnic tourism: the local perspective, Travel and Tourism Research Association Whitehorse, Canada, September 17-19, 120-126.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Oğuz DİKER
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-9538-1621
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mart 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Şubat 2019
Kabul Tarihi 27 Mart 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 8, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Diker, O. (2019). Somut Olmayan Kültürel Miras ile İlişkisi Bağlamında Etnik Turizm . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 8 (1) , 671-684 . DOI: 10.15869/itobiad.531408
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Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.