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Batılı kaynakların penceresinden 19. yüzyılda Kuzey Kafkasyalıların Ruslara karşı verdiği bağımsızlık ve özgürlük mücadelesi

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 5, 2670 - 2690, 01.12.2017

Öz

Kafkas dağları asırlar boyu birçok medeniyetin ilgi odağı haline gelmiş, tarihin farklı dönemlerinde farklı ülkeler, bu bölgeyi kendi topraklarına katmak için ordular göndermiş ancak bağımsız beylikler, hanlıklar şeklinde yönetilen küçük dağlı kabileler yabancı orduları çok sevdikleri dağlarına sokmamışlardır. Kuzey Kafkasya’nın, tarih boyu mücadele ettiği işgalci güçlerin sonuncusu Rusya olmuştur. Kuzey Kafkasya dağlı kabilelerinin işgalci Rus ordusuna karşı verdiği bağımsızlık ve özgürlük mücadelesi ve özellikle bu mücadelenin İmam Şamil dönemi, Batı dünyasında ilgiyle izlenmiştir. Kafkasya’yı ziyaret eden Avrupalı seyyahlar bu konuda The Caucasus (Golovin, 1854); The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus (Baddeley, 1908) gibi çok sayıda eser vermiştir. Aynı konuda In Quest for God and Freedom: Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus (Zelkina, 2000) ve Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan (Gammer, 2013) gibi bilimsel araştırmaya dayalı eserler de yayınlanmıştır. Daily News, Alnwick Mercury, Bolton Chronicle, Stirling Observer  ve Independance Beigeg gibi zamanın önemli İngiliz gazeteleri aynı konuyu sürekli gündemde tutmuştur. 1854 -1856 yılları arasında ABD ve Avrupa’da Şamil’in hayatını ve savaşlarını anlatan toplam 38 kitap yayınlanmıştır. 

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, S. Z. (2002). Twilight on the Caucasus. Haverford, PA: Infinity Publishing.com Asatiani, S. (13 Kasım 2011). Literature And Empire: Scholar Susan Layton Discusses Russia's 'Literary Caucasus' . Susan Layton ile söyleşi. Erişim tarihi 14 Temmuz 2016. http://www.rferl.org/content/literature_empire_scholar_susan_layton_discusses_russia_literary_caucasus/24389678.html Baddeley, J. F. (1908). “The Russian conquest of the Caucasus”. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Baddeley, J. F. (1995). Rusların Kafkasya'yı İstilası ve Şeyh Şamil. (S. Özden, Çev.). İstanbul: Kayıhan Yayınları. (Orjinal çalışma basım tarihi. 1908) Barrett, T. M. (1994). The Remaking of the Lion of Dagestan: Shamil in Captivity. The Russian Review.53(3), 353. 23 Nisan 2016, http://www.jstor.org/stable/131191. Bennigsen, A. ve Wimbush, S.E. (1985). “Mystics and commissars – Sufism in the Soviet Union”. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. Bennigsen, A. ve Wimbush, S.E. (1985). Muslims of the Soviet Empire. Berkeley,& Los Angeles: University of California Press. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, A. (1989). Ammalat Bek. (S. Özden, Çev.). İstanbul: Kayıhan Yayınları. (Orjinal çalışma basım tarihi. 1832) Blanch, L. (1995).“The sabres of Paradise”. New York:TPP. Bullough, O. (2010). Let our fame be great. New York: Basic Boks Coene, F. (2010). The Caucasus – An introduction. New York: Routledge Erel, Ş. (1961).“Dağıstan ve Dağıstanlılar”. İstanbul: İstanbul Matbaası El Karahi, M. T. (1999). “Dağıstan kılıçlarının parlaması”. İstanbul: İnsanYayınları Freshfield, D. W. (1869). Travels in the central Caucasus and Bashan; including visits to Ararat and Tabreez and ascents of Kazbek and Elbruz. London: Longmans, Green, & co. Gammer, M. (1992). Was General Klüge-von-Klugenau Shamil's Desmichels? Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique, Vol. 33, No. 2/3 (Apr. - Sep., 1992), pp. 207-221. 23 Kasım 2015, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20170820 Gammer, M.(2003).‘Proconsul of the Caucasus’: a Re-examination of Yermolov. Social Evolution & History. Volume 2, Number 1 / March 2003. Pp. 177-188. 30 Kasım 2015, http://www.sociostudies.org/journal/articles/140480/ Gammer, M. (2013). Muslim resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan (Kindle Location 42). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition Golovin, I. (1854). “The Caucasus”. London: Trübner, & Co. Gould, R. (2012). Imam Shamil (1797–1871). S.M. Norris ve W. Sunderland (ed.). Russia’s people of empire-Life stories from Eurasia, 1500 to the present içinde (s. 117-128). Press Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press Gökay, B. (2004). Russia and Chechnia: A long history of conflict, resistance and oppression. Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, 3(2/3), 1-18. 09 Mayıs 2016, http://alternativesjournal.net/article/viewFile/5000159554/5000143967 Göztepe, T. M. (1994). Dağıstan aslanı İmam Şamil. (8. Baskı). İstanbul: Sebil Yayınevi Griffin, N.(2001). Caucasus: Mountain men and holy wars. New York: Thomas Dunne Books Helfrich, E. (2015). Pushkin and the Caucasus: Literary Images of Russia’s Eastern Frontier. Primary Source. Volume V: Issue II Henze, P. (1985). Paul Henze(1985). Kafkaslarda Ateş ve Kılıç- 19. Yüzyılda Kuzey Kafkasya Dağ Köylülerinin Direnişi. Ankara: ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi Basım İşliği Haxthausen, B. A. V. (1855). The tribes of the Caucasus - with an accunt of Schamyl and the Murids. London: Chapman and Hall. Hamburg, G. (2004). War of worlds -A commentary on the two texts in their historical context. Russian-Muslim confrontation in the Caucasus: Alternative visions of the conflict between Imam Shamil and the Russians, 1830-1859 (1. Baskı) içinde (153-223). New York: Routledge Jesse, W. (1841). Notes of a half-pay in search of health; or, Russia, Circassia, and the Crimea, in 1839-40. Volume 2. London: James Madden and Co. Kemper, M. (2002). The Daghestani legal discourse on the Imamate, Central Asian Survey, 21:3, 265- 278. 15 Nisan 2016, DOI: 10.1080/0263493022000039980 278. Kemper, M. (2002). Khālidiyya networks in Daghestan and the question of Jihād. Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 42, Issue 1 (2002), pp. 41-71. 13 Kasim 2015, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1571294 . Khodarkovsky, M. (June 1999). Of Christianity, enlightenment, and colonialism: Russia in the North Caucasus, 1550-1800. The Journal of Modern History. Vol.71, No. 2. pp. 394-430 Khodarkovsky, M. (2011). Bitter Choices, Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus. Ithaca – London : Cornell University Press, 2011, xii + 200 p. Kömürcü, A. (2007). Lezgi alimi Muhammed Yaragi’nin Kafkasya Bağımsızlık Mücadelesindeki rolü. Journal of Academic Studies, 9(33), 165-177. Knysh, A. (2002). Sufism as an explanatory paradigm: The issue of the motivations of Sufi resistance movements in Western and Russian scholarship.Source: Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 42, Issue 2 (2002), pp. 139-173 . BRILL. 22 Nisan 2016, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1571267 Kundukh, A. (1987).Kafkasya Müridizmi -Gazavat Tarihi. T. C. Kutlu (ed.).İstanbul: Gözde Kitaplar Yayınevi Kutlu, T. C.(1987). Notlar ve Açıklamalar. T. C. Kutlu (ed.). Kafkasya Müridizmi – Gazavat Tarihi içinde (s. 132-133). İstanbul: Gözde Kitaplar Yayınevi Layton, S. (1994). Russian literature and empire- Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Lemercier-Quelquejay, C. (1992). Cooptation of the elites in the sixteenth century in Kabarda and Daghestan, M. Broxup-Bennigsen(ed.). The North Caucasus Barrier- The Russian Advance towards the Muslim World içinde (s. 18-44). King Street, London: C. Hurst & Co. Lermontov, M. (1966). A hero of our time. New York: Penguin Books Mackie, J. M. (1856). “Life of Schamyl and narrative of the Circassian war of independence against Russia”. Boston: John P. Jewett and Company Michaels, P. A. (2004). Prisoners of the Caucasus : From Colonial to Postcolonial Narrative. Russian Studies in Literature. 40(2), 52-77. .02 Şubat 2016, http://clas.uiowa.edu/history/just-published/prisoners-caucasus-colonial-postcolonial-narrative Moser, L. (1856). The Caucasus and its people with brief history of their history wars and a sketch of the achievements of the renowned Chief Schamyl. London: David Nutt Mustafayev, B. (2013). Cihan hakimiyetini Moskoflara öğütleyen Deli Petro’nun vasiyetnamesi ve Ermenistan devletinin kurulmasında etkisi. International Journal Of Eurasia Social Sciences / Uluslararasi Avrasya Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4(11), 17-27. Myers, L. (2013). "Vicious Barbarians, Slave Girls, and Mythologized Mountains: The Effects of Orientalist Discourse in Literature and Memoir on the Prosecution of the Great Caucasian War, 1817-1864" (2013). Undergraduate Honors Theses. Paper 457. Özden, H. (2014). Şeyh Şamil ve Hacı Murat üzerine. Bizim Ahıska. Kış. Sayı: 33. S. 40-45 11 Kasım 2015, http://www.ahiska.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/BizimAhiska-33-site_11.pdf Reynolds, M. A. (2004). Myths and Mysticism: A Longitudinal Perspective on Islam and Conflict in the North Caucasus. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 2005), pp. 31-54 Sanderson, E. (1901). Schamyl of the Caucasus. Hero patriots of the nineteenth century içinde (s. 236-266). New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. Publisher Sidorko, C. S.(2002). Nineteenth century German travelogues as sources on the history of Daghestan and Chechnya. Central Asian Survey (2002) 21(3), 283–299 . DOI: 10.1080/026349302200004000 5 Smith, S. (1998). “Allah’s mountains”. New York: I.B.Tauris Publishers. ________The Moscow Gazette, of Sept. 3, publishes the following important article on this subject. (9 Ekim 1864). http://www.nytimes.com/1864/10/09/news/europe-captain-speke-african-traveler-plans-russia-east-novel-ship-war.html?pagewanted=all Wagner, F. (1854). Schamyl and Circassia- Chiefly from materials collected by Dr. Friedrich Wagner. London: G. Routledge & Co. Yemelianova, G. M. (2001). Sufizm and politics in the Northern Caucasus. Association for the Study of Nationalities. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2001. 11 Kasım 2015, DOI: 10.1080/0090599012010213 8 Yeşil, M., (2010). “Kafkas kartalı- İmam Şamil Destanı”. (9. Baskı). İstanbul: Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı Zelkina, A. (2000). In quest for God and freedom: Sufi responses to the Russian advance in the North Caucasus. King Street, London: C. Hurst & Co.
  • Gazeteler Betrayal of Schamyl. (01 Ekim 1859). Bolton Chronicle, 2 Schamyl, Circassian leader. (07 Kasım 1853). The Daily News, 3 Schamyl and his mountainers. (16 Eylül 1854). The Freeman’s Journal, 2 Schamyl.(18 Ekim 1855). North & South Shields Gazette and Northumberland and Durham Advertiser, 2 Schamyl, the prophet warrior.( 31 Ocak 1856). Morning Post, 6 Schamyl, the prophet hero of the Caucasus.( 03 Haziran 1854). Berkshire Chronicle, 7 Schamyl, the Circassian patriot. (13 Nisan 1871). Falkirk Herald, 4 Schamyl and the Circassians.(13 Nisan 1854). Northern Warder and General Advertiser for the Counties of Fife, 6-7 Schamyl and the Circassians.(01 Temmuz 1854). Alnwick Mercury, 3 Poetry. The words of Schamyl.(05 Temmuz 1854). The Aberdeen Press and Journal, 6 The captive Schamyl.( 29 Eylül 1859). Stirling Observer, 4

The Struggle For Independence and Freedom of The North Caucasus Against The Russians In The 19th Century From The Window of Western Sources

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 5, 2670 - 2690, 01.12.2017

Öz

Among the independence movements that took place in various regions of the world in the 19th century, the most remarkable one was the resistance of the tribes of the North Caucasus mountains against the Russian army that occupied their lands. This resistance, has turned into the war of independence and freedom  of the North Caucasus under the leadership of Imam Shamil. The Europeans learned this resistance movement from memories of the travelers who came to visit Caucasus. In the scientific research conducted in the following years on this subject, although occasional Russian, Ottoman and British official documents were included, based on the memories of European travelers. On the other hand, the news and commentary in the newspapers in the same period were not included or a few examples are mentioned, which revealed a significant gap in the literature. The aim of this study is to fill this gap. For this purpose, 11 newspapers published in England in the period from 1853 to the year 1859, when Shamil was surrendered, were scanned and while the events of the period were being analyzed, news and comments in these newspapers were evaluated together with other Western sources.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmed, S. Z. (2002). Twilight on the Caucasus. Haverford, PA: Infinity Publishing.com Asatiani, S. (13 Kasım 2011). Literature And Empire: Scholar Susan Layton Discusses Russia's 'Literary Caucasus' . Susan Layton ile söyleşi. Erişim tarihi 14 Temmuz 2016. http://www.rferl.org/content/literature_empire_scholar_susan_layton_discusses_russia_literary_caucasus/24389678.html Baddeley, J. F. (1908). “The Russian conquest of the Caucasus”. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Baddeley, J. F. (1995). Rusların Kafkasya'yı İstilası ve Şeyh Şamil. (S. Özden, Çev.). İstanbul: Kayıhan Yayınları. (Orjinal çalışma basım tarihi. 1908) Barrett, T. M. (1994). The Remaking of the Lion of Dagestan: Shamil in Captivity. The Russian Review.53(3), 353. 23 Nisan 2016, http://www.jstor.org/stable/131191. Bennigsen, A. ve Wimbush, S.E. (1985). “Mystics and commissars – Sufism in the Soviet Union”. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. Bennigsen, A. ve Wimbush, S.E. (1985). Muslims of the Soviet Empire. Berkeley,& Los Angeles: University of California Press. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky, A. (1989). Ammalat Bek. (S. Özden, Çev.). İstanbul: Kayıhan Yayınları. (Orjinal çalışma basım tarihi. 1832) Blanch, L. (1995).“The sabres of Paradise”. New York:TPP. Bullough, O. (2010). Let our fame be great. New York: Basic Boks Coene, F. (2010). The Caucasus – An introduction. New York: Routledge Erel, Ş. (1961).“Dağıstan ve Dağıstanlılar”. İstanbul: İstanbul Matbaası El Karahi, M. T. (1999). “Dağıstan kılıçlarının parlaması”. İstanbul: İnsanYayınları Freshfield, D. W. (1869). Travels in the central Caucasus and Bashan; including visits to Ararat and Tabreez and ascents of Kazbek and Elbruz. London: Longmans, Green, & co. Gammer, M. (1992). Was General Klüge-von-Klugenau Shamil's Desmichels? Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique, Vol. 33, No. 2/3 (Apr. - Sep., 1992), pp. 207-221. 23 Kasım 2015, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20170820 Gammer, M.(2003).‘Proconsul of the Caucasus’: a Re-examination of Yermolov. Social Evolution & History. Volume 2, Number 1 / March 2003. Pp. 177-188. 30 Kasım 2015, http://www.sociostudies.org/journal/articles/140480/ Gammer, M. (2013). Muslim resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan (Kindle Location 42). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition Golovin, I. (1854). “The Caucasus”. London: Trübner, & Co. Gould, R. (2012). Imam Shamil (1797–1871). S.M. Norris ve W. Sunderland (ed.). Russia’s people of empire-Life stories from Eurasia, 1500 to the present içinde (s. 117-128). Press Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press Gökay, B. (2004). Russia and Chechnia: A long history of conflict, resistance and oppression. Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, 3(2/3), 1-18. 09 Mayıs 2016, http://alternativesjournal.net/article/viewFile/5000159554/5000143967 Göztepe, T. M. (1994). Dağıstan aslanı İmam Şamil. (8. Baskı). İstanbul: Sebil Yayınevi Griffin, N.(2001). Caucasus: Mountain men and holy wars. New York: Thomas Dunne Books Helfrich, E. (2015). Pushkin and the Caucasus: Literary Images of Russia’s Eastern Frontier. Primary Source. Volume V: Issue II Henze, P. (1985). Paul Henze(1985). Kafkaslarda Ateş ve Kılıç- 19. Yüzyılda Kuzey Kafkasya Dağ Köylülerinin Direnişi. Ankara: ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi Basım İşliği Haxthausen, B. A. V. (1855). The tribes of the Caucasus - with an accunt of Schamyl and the Murids. London: Chapman and Hall. Hamburg, G. (2004). War of worlds -A commentary on the two texts in their historical context. Russian-Muslim confrontation in the Caucasus: Alternative visions of the conflict between Imam Shamil and the Russians, 1830-1859 (1. Baskı) içinde (153-223). New York: Routledge Jesse, W. (1841). Notes of a half-pay in search of health; or, Russia, Circassia, and the Crimea, in 1839-40. Volume 2. London: James Madden and Co. Kemper, M. (2002). The Daghestani legal discourse on the Imamate, Central Asian Survey, 21:3, 265- 278. 15 Nisan 2016, DOI: 10.1080/0263493022000039980 278. Kemper, M. (2002). Khālidiyya networks in Daghestan and the question of Jihād. Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 42, Issue 1 (2002), pp. 41-71. 13 Kasim 2015, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1571294 . Khodarkovsky, M. (June 1999). Of Christianity, enlightenment, and colonialism: Russia in the North Caucasus, 1550-1800. The Journal of Modern History. Vol.71, No. 2. pp. 394-430 Khodarkovsky, M. (2011). Bitter Choices, Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus. Ithaca – London : Cornell University Press, 2011, xii + 200 p. Kömürcü, A. (2007). Lezgi alimi Muhammed Yaragi’nin Kafkasya Bağımsızlık Mücadelesindeki rolü. Journal of Academic Studies, 9(33), 165-177. Knysh, A. (2002). Sufism as an explanatory paradigm: The issue of the motivations of Sufi resistance movements in Western and Russian scholarship.Source: Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 42, Issue 2 (2002), pp. 139-173 . BRILL. 22 Nisan 2016, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1571267 Kundukh, A. (1987).Kafkasya Müridizmi -Gazavat Tarihi. T. C. Kutlu (ed.).İstanbul: Gözde Kitaplar Yayınevi Kutlu, T. C.(1987). Notlar ve Açıklamalar. T. C. Kutlu (ed.). Kafkasya Müridizmi – Gazavat Tarihi içinde (s. 132-133). İstanbul: Gözde Kitaplar Yayınevi Layton, S. (1994). Russian literature and empire- Conquest of the Caucasus from Pushkin to Tolstoy. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Lemercier-Quelquejay, C. (1992). Cooptation of the elites in the sixteenth century in Kabarda and Daghestan, M. Broxup-Bennigsen(ed.). The North Caucasus Barrier- The Russian Advance towards the Muslim World içinde (s. 18-44). King Street, London: C. Hurst & Co. Lermontov, M. (1966). A hero of our time. New York: Penguin Books Mackie, J. M. (1856). “Life of Schamyl and narrative of the Circassian war of independence against Russia”. Boston: John P. Jewett and Company Michaels, P. A. (2004). Prisoners of the Caucasus : From Colonial to Postcolonial Narrative. Russian Studies in Literature. 40(2), 52-77. .02 Şubat 2016, http://clas.uiowa.edu/history/just-published/prisoners-caucasus-colonial-postcolonial-narrative Moser, L. (1856). The Caucasus and its people with brief history of their history wars and a sketch of the achievements of the renowned Chief Schamyl. London: David Nutt Mustafayev, B. (2013). Cihan hakimiyetini Moskoflara öğütleyen Deli Petro’nun vasiyetnamesi ve Ermenistan devletinin kurulmasında etkisi. International Journal Of Eurasia Social Sciences / Uluslararasi Avrasya Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4(11), 17-27. Myers, L. (2013). "Vicious Barbarians, Slave Girls, and Mythologized Mountains: The Effects of Orientalist Discourse in Literature and Memoir on the Prosecution of the Great Caucasian War, 1817-1864" (2013). Undergraduate Honors Theses. Paper 457. Özden, H. (2014). Şeyh Şamil ve Hacı Murat üzerine. Bizim Ahıska. Kış. Sayı: 33. S. 40-45 11 Kasım 2015, http://www.ahiska.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/BizimAhiska-33-site_11.pdf Reynolds, M. A. (2004). Myths and Mysticism: A Longitudinal Perspective on Islam and Conflict in the North Caucasus. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 2005), pp. 31-54 Sanderson, E. (1901). Schamyl of the Caucasus. Hero patriots of the nineteenth century içinde (s. 236-266). New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. Publisher Sidorko, C. S.(2002). Nineteenth century German travelogues as sources on the history of Daghestan and Chechnya. Central Asian Survey (2002) 21(3), 283–299 . DOI: 10.1080/026349302200004000 5 Smith, S. (1998). “Allah’s mountains”. New York: I.B.Tauris Publishers. ________The Moscow Gazette, of Sept. 3, publishes the following important article on this subject. (9 Ekim 1864). http://www.nytimes.com/1864/10/09/news/europe-captain-speke-african-traveler-plans-russia-east-novel-ship-war.html?pagewanted=all Wagner, F. (1854). Schamyl and Circassia- Chiefly from materials collected by Dr. Friedrich Wagner. London: G. Routledge & Co. Yemelianova, G. M. (2001). Sufizm and politics in the Northern Caucasus. Association for the Study of Nationalities. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2001. 11 Kasım 2015, DOI: 10.1080/0090599012010213 8 Yeşil, M., (2010). “Kafkas kartalı- İmam Şamil Destanı”. (9. Baskı). İstanbul: Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı Zelkina, A. (2000). In quest for God and freedom: Sufi responses to the Russian advance in the North Caucasus. King Street, London: C. Hurst & Co.
  • Gazeteler Betrayal of Schamyl. (01 Ekim 1859). Bolton Chronicle, 2 Schamyl, Circassian leader. (07 Kasım 1853). The Daily News, 3 Schamyl and his mountainers. (16 Eylül 1854). The Freeman’s Journal, 2 Schamyl.(18 Ekim 1855). North & South Shields Gazette and Northumberland and Durham Advertiser, 2 Schamyl, the prophet warrior.( 31 Ocak 1856). Morning Post, 6 Schamyl, the prophet hero of the Caucasus.( 03 Haziran 1854). Berkshire Chronicle, 7 Schamyl, the Circassian patriot. (13 Nisan 1871). Falkirk Herald, 4 Schamyl and the Circassians.(13 Nisan 1854). Northern Warder and General Advertiser for the Counties of Fife, 6-7 Schamyl and the Circassians.(01 Temmuz 1854). Alnwick Mercury, 3 Poetry. The words of Schamyl.(05 Temmuz 1854). The Aberdeen Press and Journal, 6 The captive Schamyl.( 29 Eylül 1859). Stirling Observer, 4

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Muhacir Murat YEŞİL
NECMETTİN ERBAKAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 11 Ekim 2017
Kabul Tarihi 1 Aralık 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 5

Kaynak Göster

APA Yeşil, M. M. (2017). Batılı kaynakların penceresinden 19. yüzyılda Kuzey Kafkasyalıların Ruslara karşı verdiği bağımsızlık ve özgürlük mücadelesi . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (5) , 2670-2690 . Retrieved from http://www.itobiad.com/tr/pub/issue/31500/342820
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  • 13867 13868 13869 13870 1387122476

Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.