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İnsani Müdahale Sorunu Bağlamında Egemenlik ve Kozmopolitanizm

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 5, 3047 - 3064, 21.12.2017

Öz

Vestfalya Antlaşması’ndan sonra kurulan dünya düzeni egemen eşitliği ilkesi üzerine inşa edilmiş bir uluslararası sistem öngörmekteydi. Zaman içinde olgunlaşan ve değişen bu sistem İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra önce insan hakları adına gerçekleştirilen kurumsal girişimlerin ardından da küreselleşme sürecinin yoğun baskısı altında kalmış ve sistemin ciddi bir kriz içinde olduğu iddia edilmiştir. Bu iddiaların bazıları artık sistemin kendini idame ettirmeye muktedir olmadığı tespiti üzerinde odaklanmakta ve mevcut sistemi ikame edecek yeni bir arayışın bir zaruret olduğunu vurgulamaktadır. Bu çalışma bu doğrultuda kozmopolitan düşüncenin Vestfalyan düzen için bir alternatif olarak nasıl algılandığı üzerine yoğunlaşmakta ve bir pratik olarak insani müdahalenin bu tartışmadaki yerini sorgulamaktadır. Modern dünyanın sadece düşünsel temelini değil aynı zamanda siyaset yapma pratiğini de etkileyen kozmopolitan düşünce Vestfalyan düzenin egemenlik ve ülkesellik esaslarına dayanan bakış açısına çeşitli alternatifler getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada insani müdahale kavramının özellikle moral boyutu kozmopolitan düşünce ile ilişkilendirilerek ele alınmıştır ve insani müdahale meselesi kozmopolitanizm ve egemenlik tartışmaları içinde kritik bir sorun olarak değerlendirilmiştir. 

Kaynakça

  • Akyeşilmen, Nezir. (2014), “Normatif Teori”, ed. Şaban Kardaş, Ali Balcı. Uluslararası İlişkilere Giriş, İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2. Baskı, 269-281.
  • Archibugi, Daniele. (2004), “Cosmopolitan Guidelines for Humanitarian Intervention”. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 29 No. 1, 1-21.
  • Ayoob, Mohammed. (2002), “Humanitarian Intervention and State Sovereignty”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 6 No.1, 81-102.
  • Beck, Ulrich. (2000), “The Cosmopolitan Perspective: Sociology of The Second Age of Modernity”, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 51 No.1, 79-105.
  • Beck, Ulrich. (2003), “Rooted Cosmopolitanism: Emerging From a Rivalry of Distinctions”, ed. Ulrich Beck, Natan Sznaider, Rainer Winter, Global America?, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  • Benhabib, Seyla et. al. (2006a), "The Philosophical Foundations of Cosmopolitan Norms, ed. Robert Post, Another Cosmopolitanism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Benhabib, Seyla. (2006b), Ötekilerin Hakları: Yabancılar, Yerliler ve Vatandaşlar, (Çev. B. Akkıyal), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Bellamy, Alex, J. and Nicholas, J. Wheeler,. (2014), “Humanitarian Intervention in World Politics”, ed. John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6th edition, 479-493.
  • Brown, Chris. (2002), Sovereignty, Rights and Justice: International Political Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Brown, Chris, Kirsten Ainley. (2008), Uluslararası İlişkileri Anlamak (Çev. A. Oyacıoğlu), İstanbul: Yayın Odası Yayıncılık.
  • Buchanan, Allen. (2003), “Reforming the International Law of Humanitarian Intervention”, ed. J.L. Holzgrefe, Robert O. Keohane. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 130-173.
  • Buchanan, Allen and Robert O. Keohane. (2004), “The Preventive Use of Force: A Cosmopolitan Institutional Proposal”, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 18 No.1, 1-22.
  • Calhoun, Craig. (2012), Milliyetçilik (Çev. B. Sütçüoğlu), İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Çiğdem, Ahmet. (2004), Bir İmkan Olarak Modernite, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Coleman, Janet. (2000), A History of Political Thought: From Ancient Greece to Early Christianity. Oxford: Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Delanty, Gerard. (2009), The Cosmopolitan Imagination: The Renewal of Critical Social Theory, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Delanty, Gerard, Patrick O’Mahony. (2002), Nationalism and Social Theory. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Denk, Erdem. (2015), Birleşmiş Milletler Sistemi, Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.
  • Devetak, Richard. (2007), “Between Kant and Pufendorf: Humanitarian Intervention, Statist Anti-cosmopolitanism and Critical International Theory”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 33, 151-174.
  • Douzinas, Costas. (2007), Human Rights and Empire: The Political Philosophy of Cosmopolitanism. New York, Abingdon: Routledge-Cavendish.
  • Ferrara, Alessandro. (2007), “‘Political’ Cosmopolitanism and Judgement”, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 10 No.1, 53-66.
  • Fine, Robert (2003). “Taking the ‘ism’ Out of Cosmopolitanism”. European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 6 No.4, 451-470.
  • Fine, Robert. (2007), Cosmopolitanism, New York: Routladge.
  • Fine, Robert. (2011), “Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism: Western or Universal?”, ed. David Adams, Galin Tihanov, Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism, Oxford: Legenda, 153-169.
  • Finnemore, Martha. (2003), The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs About The Use Of Force, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • Giddens, Anthony. (2008), Ulus-devlet ve Şiddet, (Çev. C. Atay). Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • Habermas, Jürgen. (2007), Bölünmüş Batı, (Çev. D. Muradoğlu). İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Held, David. (2010), Cosmopolitanism: Ideals and Relities, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Heywood, Andrew. (2013), Küresel Siyaset (Çev. N. Uslu, H. Özdemir) Ankara, Adres Yayınları.
  • Holzgrefe, J.L. (2003), “The Humanitarian Intervention Debate”. ed. J.L. Holzgrefe, Robert O. Keohane, Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 15-52.
  • Kadıoğlu, Ayşe. (2012), “Vatandaşlık: Kavramın Farklı Anlamları”. Haz. Ayşe Kadıoğlu, Vatandaşlığın Dönüşümü (Çev. C. Cemgil). İstanbul: Metis Yayınları, 21-30.
  • Miller, David. (2002), “Cosmopolitanism: A Critique”, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, Vol. 5 No. 3, 80-85.
  • Nardin, Terry. (2002), “The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention”, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 16 No. 2, 57-70.
  • Nussbaum, Martha. (1997), “Kant and Stoic Cosmopolitanism”, The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 5 No. 1, 1-25.
  • Parekh, Bhikhu. (1997), “Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention”. International Political Science Review, Vol. 18 No. 1, 49-69.
  • Pierik, Rolland and Wouter Werner. (2010), “Cosmopolitanism In Context: An Introduction”, ed. Rolland Pierik, Wouter Werner. Cosmopolitanism In Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-15.
  • Pierson, Christopher. (2014), Modern Devlet (Çev. N. Kutluğ, B. Erdoğan), İstanbul: Chiviyazıları Yayınevi.
  • Pogge, Thomas W. (1994), “Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty”, ed. Chris Brown, Political Restructuring in Europe, London, New York: Routledge, 85-118.
  • Smith, William and Robert Fine. (2007), “Cosmopolitanism and Military Intervention”, ed. Richard Devetak, Christopher W. Hughes. The Globalization of Political Violence : Globalization’s Shadow. London, New York: Routledge, 46-68.
  • Tan, Kok-Chor. (2010), “Enforcing Cosmopolitan Justice: The Problem of Intervention”, ed. Rolland Pierik and Wouter Werner. Cosmopolitanism in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155-175.
  • Taylor, Paul. (1999), “The United Nations in the 1990s: Proactive Cosmopolitanism and The Issue of Sovereignty”, Political Studies, Vol. XLVII, 538-565.
  • Teson, Fernando R. (2003), “The Liberal Case for Humanitarian Intervention”, ed. J.L. Holzgrefe, Robert O. Keohane, Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 93-129.
  • Teson, Fernando R. (2006), “The Vexing Problem Of Authority In Humanitarian Intervention: A Proposal”. Wisconsin International Law Journal, Vol. 24 No. 3, 761-772.
  • Tsagourias, Nicholas. (2010), “Cosmopolitan Legitimacy and UN Collective Security”, ed. Rolland Pierik ve Wouter Werner. Cosmopolitanism in Context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 129-154.
  • Wallerstein, Immanuel. (2010), Avrupa Evrenselciliği (Çev. A. U. Kılıç), İstanbul: bgst yayınları.
  • Weber, Max. (1998), Sosyoloji Yazıları (Çev. T. Parla), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Welsh, Jennifer M. (2004), “Introduction”, ed. Jennifer M. Welsh. Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations, New York, Oxford University Press, 1-7.
  • Wheeler, Nicholas, J. (2003), Saving Strangers, New York: Oxford University Press.

Sovereignty and Cosmopolitanism in the Context of the Issue of Humanitarian Intervention

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 5, 3047 - 3064, 21.12.2017

Öz

The world order established after the Peace of Westphalia predicted an international system based on the principle of equal sovereignty.  This system, which has matured and evolved in time, was under the heavy oppression of firstly the institutional initiatives under the name of human rights and then the globalization process, and it was claimed that the system is in a serious crisis. Some of these claims focus on the statement that the system is no longer able to sustain itself, and emphasize that a new quest to substitute the current system is a necessity. In this direction, this study focuses on how cosmopolitan thought is perceived as an alternative for the Westphalian order and questions the place of humanitarian intervention as a practice in this argument. Cosmopolitan thought, which not only affected the intellectual basis but also the practice of politics of the modern world, brought diverse alternatives to the perspective of the Westphalian order based on the principles of sovereignty and territoriality.  In this study, particularly the moral aspect of the humanitarian intervention concept, is discussed in association with the cosmopolitan thought, and the issue of humanitarian intervention is appraised as a critical issue in discussions of cosmopolitanism and sovereignty.

Kaynakça

  • Akyeşilmen, Nezir. (2014), “Normatif Teori”, ed. Şaban Kardaş, Ali Balcı. Uluslararası İlişkilere Giriş, İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2. Baskı, 269-281.
  • Archibugi, Daniele. (2004), “Cosmopolitan Guidelines for Humanitarian Intervention”. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 29 No. 1, 1-21.
  • Ayoob, Mohammed. (2002), “Humanitarian Intervention and State Sovereignty”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 6 No.1, 81-102.
  • Beck, Ulrich. (2000), “The Cosmopolitan Perspective: Sociology of The Second Age of Modernity”, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 51 No.1, 79-105.
  • Beck, Ulrich. (2003), “Rooted Cosmopolitanism: Emerging From a Rivalry of Distinctions”, ed. Ulrich Beck, Natan Sznaider, Rainer Winter, Global America?, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  • Benhabib, Seyla et. al. (2006a), "The Philosophical Foundations of Cosmopolitan Norms, ed. Robert Post, Another Cosmopolitanism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Benhabib, Seyla. (2006b), Ötekilerin Hakları: Yabancılar, Yerliler ve Vatandaşlar, (Çev. B. Akkıyal), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Bellamy, Alex, J. and Nicholas, J. Wheeler,. (2014), “Humanitarian Intervention in World Politics”, ed. John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6th edition, 479-493.
  • Brown, Chris. (2002), Sovereignty, Rights and Justice: International Political Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Brown, Chris, Kirsten Ainley. (2008), Uluslararası İlişkileri Anlamak (Çev. A. Oyacıoğlu), İstanbul: Yayın Odası Yayıncılık.
  • Buchanan, Allen. (2003), “Reforming the International Law of Humanitarian Intervention”, ed. J.L. Holzgrefe, Robert O. Keohane. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 130-173.
  • Buchanan, Allen and Robert O. Keohane. (2004), “The Preventive Use of Force: A Cosmopolitan Institutional Proposal”, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 18 No.1, 1-22.
  • Calhoun, Craig. (2012), Milliyetçilik (Çev. B. Sütçüoğlu), İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Çiğdem, Ahmet. (2004), Bir İmkan Olarak Modernite, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Coleman, Janet. (2000), A History of Political Thought: From Ancient Greece to Early Christianity. Oxford: Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Delanty, Gerard. (2009), The Cosmopolitan Imagination: The Renewal of Critical Social Theory, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Delanty, Gerard, Patrick O’Mahony. (2002), Nationalism and Social Theory. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Denk, Erdem. (2015), Birleşmiş Milletler Sistemi, Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.
  • Devetak, Richard. (2007), “Between Kant and Pufendorf: Humanitarian Intervention, Statist Anti-cosmopolitanism and Critical International Theory”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 33, 151-174.
  • Douzinas, Costas. (2007), Human Rights and Empire: The Political Philosophy of Cosmopolitanism. New York, Abingdon: Routledge-Cavendish.
  • Ferrara, Alessandro. (2007), “‘Political’ Cosmopolitanism and Judgement”, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 10 No.1, 53-66.
  • Fine, Robert (2003). “Taking the ‘ism’ Out of Cosmopolitanism”. European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 6 No.4, 451-470.
  • Fine, Robert. (2007), Cosmopolitanism, New York: Routladge.
  • Fine, Robert. (2011), “Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism: Western or Universal?”, ed. David Adams, Galin Tihanov, Enlightenment Cosmopolitanism, Oxford: Legenda, 153-169.
  • Finnemore, Martha. (2003), The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs About The Use Of Force, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • Giddens, Anthony. (2008), Ulus-devlet ve Şiddet, (Çev. C. Atay). Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • Habermas, Jürgen. (2007), Bölünmüş Batı, (Çev. D. Muradoğlu). İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Held, David. (2010), Cosmopolitanism: Ideals and Relities, Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Heywood, Andrew. (2013), Küresel Siyaset (Çev. N. Uslu, H. Özdemir) Ankara, Adres Yayınları.
  • Holzgrefe, J.L. (2003), “The Humanitarian Intervention Debate”. ed. J.L. Holzgrefe, Robert O. Keohane, Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 15-52.
  • Kadıoğlu, Ayşe. (2012), “Vatandaşlık: Kavramın Farklı Anlamları”. Haz. Ayşe Kadıoğlu, Vatandaşlığın Dönüşümü (Çev. C. Cemgil). İstanbul: Metis Yayınları, 21-30.
  • Miller, David. (2002), “Cosmopolitanism: A Critique”, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, Vol. 5 No. 3, 80-85.
  • Nardin, Terry. (2002), “The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention”, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 16 No. 2, 57-70.
  • Nussbaum, Martha. (1997), “Kant and Stoic Cosmopolitanism”, The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 5 No. 1, 1-25.
  • Parekh, Bhikhu. (1997), “Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention”. International Political Science Review, Vol. 18 No. 1, 49-69.
  • Pierik, Rolland and Wouter Werner. (2010), “Cosmopolitanism In Context: An Introduction”, ed. Rolland Pierik, Wouter Werner. Cosmopolitanism In Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-15.
  • Pierson, Christopher. (2014), Modern Devlet (Çev. N. Kutluğ, B. Erdoğan), İstanbul: Chiviyazıları Yayınevi.
  • Pogge, Thomas W. (1994), “Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty”, ed. Chris Brown, Political Restructuring in Europe, London, New York: Routledge, 85-118.
  • Smith, William and Robert Fine. (2007), “Cosmopolitanism and Military Intervention”, ed. Richard Devetak, Christopher W. Hughes. The Globalization of Political Violence : Globalization’s Shadow. London, New York: Routledge, 46-68.
  • Tan, Kok-Chor. (2010), “Enforcing Cosmopolitan Justice: The Problem of Intervention”, ed. Rolland Pierik and Wouter Werner. Cosmopolitanism in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155-175.
  • Taylor, Paul. (1999), “The United Nations in the 1990s: Proactive Cosmopolitanism and The Issue of Sovereignty”, Political Studies, Vol. XLVII, 538-565.
  • Teson, Fernando R. (2003), “The Liberal Case for Humanitarian Intervention”, ed. J.L. Holzgrefe, Robert O. Keohane, Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 93-129.
  • Teson, Fernando R. (2006), “The Vexing Problem Of Authority In Humanitarian Intervention: A Proposal”. Wisconsin International Law Journal, Vol. 24 No. 3, 761-772.
  • Tsagourias, Nicholas. (2010), “Cosmopolitan Legitimacy and UN Collective Security”, ed. Rolland Pierik ve Wouter Werner. Cosmopolitanism in Context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 129-154.
  • Wallerstein, Immanuel. (2010), Avrupa Evrenselciliği (Çev. A. U. Kılıç), İstanbul: bgst yayınları.
  • Weber, Max. (1998), Sosyoloji Yazıları (Çev. T. Parla), İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Welsh, Jennifer M. (2004), “Introduction”, ed. Jennifer M. Welsh. Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations, New York, Oxford University Press, 1-7.
  • Wheeler, Nicholas, J. (2003), Saving Strangers, New York: Oxford University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Tuğba BAĞBAŞLIOĞLU
AHİ EVRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLÜMÜ
orcid.org/0000-0003-2935-9044
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Aralık 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 28 Haziran 2017
Kabul Tarihi 24 Ekim 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 5

Kaynak Göster

APA Bağbaşlıoğlu, T. (2017). İnsani Müdahale Sorunu Bağlamında Egemenlik ve Kozmopolitanizm . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (5) , 3047-3064 . Retrieved from http://www.itobiad.com/tr/pub/issue/31500/323817
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Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.