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Conceptual Investigation of High-Impact Learning Model in Terms of Tourism Organizations

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 1794 - 1812, 06.09.2017

Öz

Organizational learning has big importance for organizations about orientation and control the environment. Orientation and control of the environment is key for sustainability of organizational life. This matter is a strategic point for organizations that have dynamic environment just as tourism organizations. Requisite elements of organizational learning such as knowledge acquisition, knowledge management and use of knowledge should be procurable by effective learning models. Scope of this research is explanation the importance of organizational learning and suggestion an organizational learning model for tourism organizations. According to the research results, organizational learning has structural effects just as positive performance and organizational commitment, market oriented effects such as competitive advantage and customer loyalty. According to results of suggested model are organizational learning types that focused on sustainable change, human resource, non-bureaucratic and dynamic organizational structures are functional for tourism organizations. On the other hand, learning type that offer bureaucratic, have a low opinion of human resource and static structures are not functional for tourism organizations.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, Will (2002). Using Participatory and Learning-Based Approaches for Environmental Management to Help Achieve Constructive Behaviour Change, Landcare Research Contract Report, 1-51.
  • Argyris, Chris (1994) Good Communication That Blocks Learning, Harvard Business Review, July-August, 77-85.
  • Avcı, Nilgün; Küçükusta, Deniz (2009). Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme, Örgütsel Bağlılık ve İşten Ayrılama Eğilimi Arasındaki İlişki, Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, Cilt 20, Sayı 1, Bahar, ss. 33-44.
  • Avcı, Umut (2005). İşletmelerde Örgütsel Öğrenme. Örgütsel Performans İlişkisi: Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme-Örgütsel Performans İlişkisine Yönelik İnceleme, Yayınlanmamış Yüsek Lisans Tezi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Ayazlar, Gökhan (2012) Otel İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme ve Bilgi Paylaşımının Hizmet İnovasyon Performansına Etkisi: Kuşadası 5 Yıldızlı Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Araştırma, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Turizm İşletmeciliği Ana Bilim Dalı, Aydın.
  • Bandura, Albert (1971). Social Learning Theory, General Learning Press, Newyork.
  • Bayraktaroğlu, Serkan; Kutanis, Ozen, Rana (2003). Transforming Hotels into Learning Organisations: A New Strategy for Going Global, Tourism Management, 24, pp. 149-154.
  • Berkhout, Frans; Hertin, Julia; David, M. Gann (2006). Climatic Change, 78: 135-156.
  • Blackman, Deborah; Ritchie, W. Brent (2008). Tourism Crisis Management and Organizational Learning, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 23:24, pp. 45-57.
  • Crossan, M. Mary; Lane, W. Henry; White, E. Roderick (1999). Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, 522-537.
  • Crossan, M. Mary; Lane, W. Henry; White, E. Roderick; Djurfeldt, Lisa (1995). Organizational Learning: Dimensions For A Theory, The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 4, 337-360.
  • Curado, Carla (2006) Organizational Learning and Organizational Design, The Learning Organization, Vol. 13, No. 1, 25-48.
  • Çelen, Nermin (1999). Öğrenme Psikolojisi, İmge Yayınevi,Ankara.
  • Daft, L. Richard; Weick, E. Karl (1984) Toward a Model of Organizations as Interpretation Systems, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, 284-295. Driscoll, P. Marcy (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction, Trhid Edition, Pearson Pub.
  • Edmondson, C. Amy (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350-383.
  • Engström, E. J. Truls; Wedtnes, Petter; Westnes, Furdal, Siren (2003). Evaluating Intellectual Capital in the Hotel Industry, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 4, Issue: 3, pp. 287-303.
  • Erden, Evrim (2007). Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Fen Öğretimi Öz Yeterlilik İnançlarının Öğrencilerin Fen Tutumları ve Akademik Başarıları Üzerindeki Etkisi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İlköğretim Anabilim Dalı, İzmir.
  • Fraj, Elena; Matute, Jorge; Melero, Iguacel (2015). Enviromental Strategies and Organizational Competitiveness in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Learning and Innovation as Determinants of Enviromental Success, Tourism Management, 46, pp. 30-42.
  • Garwin, A. David (1993) Building a Learning Organization, Harvard Business Review, July-August, 1-15.
  • Haleblian, Jerayr; Finkelstein, Sydney (1999). The Influence of Organizational Acquisition Experince on Acquisition Performance: A Behavioral Learning Perspective, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 1, 29-56.
  • Hallin, Antonia, Carina; Marnburg, Einar (2008). Knowledge Management In The Hospitality Industry: A Review of Empirical Research, Tourism Management, 29, pp. 366-381.
  • Halme, Minna (2001) Learning For Sustainable Development In Tourism Network, Business Strategy and the Enviroment, 10, pp. 100-114.
  • Hergenhahn, B. R.; Olson, H. Matthew (2005). An Introduction To Theories Of Learning, Seventh Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
  • Hjalger, Anne-Mette (2010). Progress in Tourism Management: A Reviev of Innovation Research in Tourism, Tourism Management, 31, 1-12.
  • Hu, Meng-Lei, Monica; Horng, Jeou-Shyan; Sun, Christine, Yu-Hua (2009) Hospitality Teams: Knowledge Sharing and Service Innovation Performance, Tourism Management, 30, pp.41-50.
  • Huber, P. George (1991) Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and The Literatures, Organization Science, Vol.2, No. 1, 88-115.
  • Hurley, F. Robert; Hult, M. Tomas (1998) Innovation, Market Orientation, and Organizational Learning, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62, No. 3, 42-54.
  • Husted, W. Bryan (2000) A Contingency Theory of Corporate Social Performance, Business& Society, Vol.39, No. 1, 24-48.
  • Işık, Burçin; Şenyuva, Emine (2009.) Öğrenme Kuramları ve Hemşirelik Eğitimine Yansımaları, İstanbul Üniversitesi Florence Nightingale Hemşirelik Dergisi, Vol. 17, No. 2, 144-150.
  • Kyriakidou, Olypia; Gore, Julie (2005). Learning by Example: Benchmarking Organizational Culture in Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure SMEs, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 12, Issue: 3, pp. 192-206.
  • Matthing, Jonas; Sanden, Bodil; Edvardsson, Bo (2004) New Service Development: Learning from and With Customers, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 15, Issue: 5, pp.479-498.
  • McCluskey, Annie; Lovarini, Meryl (2005). Prviding Education on Evidence-Based Practice Improved Knowledge but Did Not Change Behaviour: A Before and After Study, BMC Medical Education, 5:40.
  • Özdemir, Bahattin (2006). Örgütsel Öğrenme, Çevre ve Örgütsel Performans İlişkisi: Otel Yöneticilerinin Algılamaları Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İşletme Ana Bilim Dalı, Antalya.
  • Parasuraman, A.; Valarie, A. Zeitman; Berry, L. Leonard (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 41-50.
  • Perrow, Charles (1986). Complex Organizations A Critical Essay, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.
  • Reisenger, Yvette (2009). “Unique Characteristic of Tourism Hospitality, and Leisure Service”, Service Quality Management in Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure, Ed.Kandampully, Jay; Mok, Connie; Sparks, Beverly, Routledge, p.15-48.
  • Rousseau, M. Denise (1985). Issue of Level in Organizational Research: Multi-Level and Cross-Level Perspectives, Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol 7, 1-37.
  • Sayım, Ferhat. ve Aydın, Volkam (2011). “Hizmet Sektörü Özellikleri Ve Sistematik Olmayan Risklerin Sektör Menkul Kıymetleri İle Etkileşimine Dair Teorik Bir Çalışma”, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 29: 245-262.
  • Schunk, H. Dale (2011). Öğrenme Teorileri Eğitimsel Bir Bakışla Çev. Demir, Mahmut,Yasin, Ed. Şahin Muzaffer, Nobel Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Senemoğlu, Nuray (2012). Gelişim Öğrenme ve Öğretim Kuramdan Uygulamaya, Pegem Akademi, Ankara. Senge, M. Peter (1997) The Fifth Discipline, Measuring Business Excellnce, Vol. 1, Issue: 3, 46-51.
  • Sierra, J. Jeremy; McQuitty, Shaun (2005). Service Providers and Customers: Social Exchabge Theory and Service Loyalty, Journal of Services Marketig, Vol. 19, Issue: 6, pp. 392-400.
  • Skinner, B. Frederic (1974). About Behaviorism, Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, Newyork.
  • Slater, F. Stanley; Narver, C. John (1995). Market Orientation and The Learning Organization, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, No.3, 63-74.
  • Somech, Anit; Zahavy, A. Drach (2004). Exploring Organizational Citizenship Behaviour From an Organizational Perspective: The Relationship Between Organizational Learning and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 281-298.
  • Steiner, Lars (1998) Organizational Delemmasa as Barriers to Learning, The Learning Organization, 193-201.
  • Tajeddini, Kayhan (2009). The Impact of Learning Orientation on NSD and Hotel Performance: Evidence from the Hotel Industry in Iran, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Vol. 2, Issue: 4, pp. 262-275.
  • Tusting, Karin; Barton, David (2011). Öğrenme Kuramları ve Yetişkin Öğrenme Modelleri Üzerine Kısa Bir İnceleme, Çev. Yıldız, Ahmet; Demirli, Aylin, Dipnot Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Ulrich, Dave; Jıck, Todd; Glinow, Von, Ann, Mary (1993). High- Impact Learning: Building and Diffusing Learning Capability, Organizational Dynamics, 22(2), 52-66.
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (2016). Travel&Tourism Economic Impact 2017 World, https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/regions-2017/world2017.pdf 06.06.2017 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Yang, Jen-te (2004). Qualitative Knowledge Capturing and Organizational Learning: Two Case Studies in Taiwan Hotels, Tourism Management, 25, pp. 421-428.

Yüksek Etkili Öğrenme Modelinin Turizm İşletmeleri Açısından Kavramsal Olarak İncelenmesi

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 1794 - 1812, 06.09.2017

Öz

Örgütsel öğrenme, işletmeler açısından çevreyi kontrol edebilmek ve çevreye uyum sağlamak adına büyük öneme sahiptir. Çevreye uyum sağlayabilmek ve çevresel şartları kontrol edebilmek, işletmelerin yaşam sürdürülebilirliğinin anahtarıdır. Turizm işletmeleri gibi hareketli çevrelere sahip işletmelerde bu oldukça stratejik bir konudur. Öğrenme için gerekli olan bilgi edinimi, bilgi yönetimi ve bilginin kullanılması yalnızca etkili öğrenme modellerinin kullanımı ile mümkün olmaktadır. Bu araştırmada amaç turizm işletmeleri açısından örgütsel öğrenmenin öneminin ortaya konulması ile yüksek etkili öğrenme modelinin turizm işletmeleri açısından uygunluğunun araştırılmasıdır. Yapılan incelemelerde örgütsel öğrenmenin turizm işletmelerinde performans artışı, örgütsel bağlılık gibi yapısal, müşteri sadakati, rekabet üstünlüğü gibi pazara yönelik avantajları olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Önemi tespit edilen örgütsel öğrenmeye yönelik turizm işletmeleri için araştırılması önerilen modelin insan kaynaklarını önemseyen, dinamik, bürokratik prosedürleri ön görmeyen tiplerinin turizm işletmeleri için fonksiyonel, bürokratik, insan kaynağını önemsemeyen ve statik, tiplerinin ise fonksiyonel olmadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, Will (2002). Using Participatory and Learning-Based Approaches for Environmental Management to Help Achieve Constructive Behaviour Change, Landcare Research Contract Report, 1-51.
  • Argyris, Chris (1994) Good Communication That Blocks Learning, Harvard Business Review, July-August, 77-85.
  • Avcı, Nilgün; Küçükusta, Deniz (2009). Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme, Örgütsel Bağlılık ve İşten Ayrılama Eğilimi Arasındaki İlişki, Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, Cilt 20, Sayı 1, Bahar, ss. 33-44.
  • Avcı, Umut (2005). İşletmelerde Örgütsel Öğrenme. Örgütsel Performans İlişkisi: Konaklama İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme-Örgütsel Performans İlişkisine Yönelik İnceleme, Yayınlanmamış Yüsek Lisans Tezi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Ayazlar, Gökhan (2012) Otel İşletmelerinde Örgütsel Öğrenme ve Bilgi Paylaşımının Hizmet İnovasyon Performansına Etkisi: Kuşadası 5 Yıldızlı Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Araştırma, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Turizm İşletmeciliği Ana Bilim Dalı, Aydın.
  • Bandura, Albert (1971). Social Learning Theory, General Learning Press, Newyork.
  • Bayraktaroğlu, Serkan; Kutanis, Ozen, Rana (2003). Transforming Hotels into Learning Organisations: A New Strategy for Going Global, Tourism Management, 24, pp. 149-154.
  • Berkhout, Frans; Hertin, Julia; David, M. Gann (2006). Climatic Change, 78: 135-156.
  • Blackman, Deborah; Ritchie, W. Brent (2008). Tourism Crisis Management and Organizational Learning, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 23:24, pp. 45-57.
  • Crossan, M. Mary; Lane, W. Henry; White, E. Roderick (1999). Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, 522-537.
  • Crossan, M. Mary; Lane, W. Henry; White, E. Roderick; Djurfeldt, Lisa (1995). Organizational Learning: Dimensions For A Theory, The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 4, 337-360.
  • Curado, Carla (2006) Organizational Learning and Organizational Design, The Learning Organization, Vol. 13, No. 1, 25-48.
  • Çelen, Nermin (1999). Öğrenme Psikolojisi, İmge Yayınevi,Ankara.
  • Daft, L. Richard; Weick, E. Karl (1984) Toward a Model of Organizations as Interpretation Systems, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, 284-295. Driscoll, P. Marcy (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction, Trhid Edition, Pearson Pub.
  • Edmondson, C. Amy (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350-383.
  • Engström, E. J. Truls; Wedtnes, Petter; Westnes, Furdal, Siren (2003). Evaluating Intellectual Capital in the Hotel Industry, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 4, Issue: 3, pp. 287-303.
  • Erden, Evrim (2007). Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Fen Öğretimi Öz Yeterlilik İnançlarının Öğrencilerin Fen Tutumları ve Akademik Başarıları Üzerindeki Etkisi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İlköğretim Anabilim Dalı, İzmir.
  • Fraj, Elena; Matute, Jorge; Melero, Iguacel (2015). Enviromental Strategies and Organizational Competitiveness in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Learning and Innovation as Determinants of Enviromental Success, Tourism Management, 46, pp. 30-42.
  • Garwin, A. David (1993) Building a Learning Organization, Harvard Business Review, July-August, 1-15.
  • Haleblian, Jerayr; Finkelstein, Sydney (1999). The Influence of Organizational Acquisition Experince on Acquisition Performance: A Behavioral Learning Perspective, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 1, 29-56.
  • Hallin, Antonia, Carina; Marnburg, Einar (2008). Knowledge Management In The Hospitality Industry: A Review of Empirical Research, Tourism Management, 29, pp. 366-381.
  • Halme, Minna (2001) Learning For Sustainable Development In Tourism Network, Business Strategy and the Enviroment, 10, pp. 100-114.
  • Hergenhahn, B. R.; Olson, H. Matthew (2005). An Introduction To Theories Of Learning, Seventh Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA.
  • Hjalger, Anne-Mette (2010). Progress in Tourism Management: A Reviev of Innovation Research in Tourism, Tourism Management, 31, 1-12.
  • Hu, Meng-Lei, Monica; Horng, Jeou-Shyan; Sun, Christine, Yu-Hua (2009) Hospitality Teams: Knowledge Sharing and Service Innovation Performance, Tourism Management, 30, pp.41-50.
  • Huber, P. George (1991) Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and The Literatures, Organization Science, Vol.2, No. 1, 88-115.
  • Hurley, F. Robert; Hult, M. Tomas (1998) Innovation, Market Orientation, and Organizational Learning, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62, No. 3, 42-54.
  • Husted, W. Bryan (2000) A Contingency Theory of Corporate Social Performance, Business& Society, Vol.39, No. 1, 24-48.
  • Işık, Burçin; Şenyuva, Emine (2009.) Öğrenme Kuramları ve Hemşirelik Eğitimine Yansımaları, İstanbul Üniversitesi Florence Nightingale Hemşirelik Dergisi, Vol. 17, No. 2, 144-150.
  • Kyriakidou, Olypia; Gore, Julie (2005). Learning by Example: Benchmarking Organizational Culture in Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure SMEs, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 12, Issue: 3, pp. 192-206.
  • Matthing, Jonas; Sanden, Bodil; Edvardsson, Bo (2004) New Service Development: Learning from and With Customers, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 15, Issue: 5, pp.479-498.
  • McCluskey, Annie; Lovarini, Meryl (2005). Prviding Education on Evidence-Based Practice Improved Knowledge but Did Not Change Behaviour: A Before and After Study, BMC Medical Education, 5:40.
  • Özdemir, Bahattin (2006). Örgütsel Öğrenme, Çevre ve Örgütsel Performans İlişkisi: Otel Yöneticilerinin Algılamaları Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İşletme Ana Bilim Dalı, Antalya.
  • Parasuraman, A.; Valarie, A. Zeitman; Berry, L. Leonard (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 41-50.
  • Perrow, Charles (1986). Complex Organizations A Critical Essay, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.
  • Reisenger, Yvette (2009). “Unique Characteristic of Tourism Hospitality, and Leisure Service”, Service Quality Management in Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure, Ed.Kandampully, Jay; Mok, Connie; Sparks, Beverly, Routledge, p.15-48.
  • Rousseau, M. Denise (1985). Issue of Level in Organizational Research: Multi-Level and Cross-Level Perspectives, Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol 7, 1-37.
  • Sayım, Ferhat. ve Aydın, Volkam (2011). “Hizmet Sektörü Özellikleri Ve Sistematik Olmayan Risklerin Sektör Menkul Kıymetleri İle Etkileşimine Dair Teorik Bir Çalışma”, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 29: 245-262.
  • Schunk, H. Dale (2011). Öğrenme Teorileri Eğitimsel Bir Bakışla Çev. Demir, Mahmut,Yasin, Ed. Şahin Muzaffer, Nobel Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Senemoğlu, Nuray (2012). Gelişim Öğrenme ve Öğretim Kuramdan Uygulamaya, Pegem Akademi, Ankara. Senge, M. Peter (1997) The Fifth Discipline, Measuring Business Excellnce, Vol. 1, Issue: 3, 46-51.
  • Sierra, J. Jeremy; McQuitty, Shaun (2005). Service Providers and Customers: Social Exchabge Theory and Service Loyalty, Journal of Services Marketig, Vol. 19, Issue: 6, pp. 392-400.
  • Skinner, B. Frederic (1974). About Behaviorism, Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, Newyork.
  • Slater, F. Stanley; Narver, C. John (1995). Market Orientation and The Learning Organization, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, No.3, 63-74.
  • Somech, Anit; Zahavy, A. Drach (2004). Exploring Organizational Citizenship Behaviour From an Organizational Perspective: The Relationship Between Organizational Learning and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 281-298.
  • Steiner, Lars (1998) Organizational Delemmasa as Barriers to Learning, The Learning Organization, 193-201.
  • Tajeddini, Kayhan (2009). The Impact of Learning Orientation on NSD and Hotel Performance: Evidence from the Hotel Industry in Iran, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Vol. 2, Issue: 4, pp. 262-275.
  • Tusting, Karin; Barton, David (2011). Öğrenme Kuramları ve Yetişkin Öğrenme Modelleri Üzerine Kısa Bir İnceleme, Çev. Yıldız, Ahmet; Demirli, Aylin, Dipnot Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Ulrich, Dave; Jıck, Todd; Glinow, Von, Ann, Mary (1993). High- Impact Learning: Building and Diffusing Learning Capability, Organizational Dynamics, 22(2), 52-66.
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (2016). Travel&Tourism Economic Impact 2017 World, https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/regions-2017/world2017.pdf 06.06.2017 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Yang, Jen-te (2004). Qualitative Knowledge Capturing and Organizational Learning: Two Case Studies in Taiwan Hotels, Tourism Management, 25, pp. 421-428.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Oğuz DİKER
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
orcid.org/0000-0002-9538-1621
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 6 Eylül 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Ağustos 2017
Kabul Tarihi 19 Ağustos 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Diker, O. (2017). Yüksek Etkili Öğrenme Modelinin Turizm İşletmeleri Açısından Kavramsal Olarak İncelenmesi . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (3) , 1794-1812 . Retrieved from http://www.itobiad.com/tr/pub/issue/30065/334302
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Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.