Araştırma Makalesi
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Kültürlerarası Turist Tutumları: Bütünleşik Tehdit Teorisi Çerçevesinde Bir Araştırma

Yıl 2016, Cilt 5, Sayı 8, 2541 - 2563, 25.12.2016
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.281503

Öz

Bu çalışma ile farklı milliyetten olan turistlerin birbirlerine karşı sergiledikleri tutumlar ile bu tutumların ortaya çıkarttığı sonuçları ve dış gruptan algıladıkları tehditleri bütünleşik tehdit teorisi çerçevesinde belirleyebilmek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın kuramsal temeli; kültür, kültürel farklılıklar, tutum, kültürlerarası turist tutumları, Alman ve Rus turistlerin kültürel özellikleri, turist-turist ilişkilerine ait teoriler, bütünleşik tehdit teorisi ve önyargı kavramları kapsamında oluşturulmuştur. Kuramsal çalışma doğrultusunda anket formları geliştirilerek, Alman ve Rus turistlerden oluşan 871 adet katılımcıya, Haziran-Temmuz-Ağustos 2015 tarihleri arasında uygulanmıştır. Genel olarak; Almanlar ile Rusların sorunlu bir geçmişi olduğu ve Almanlar ile Rusların her zaman geçinmekte zorlandıkları sonuçlarına ulaşılmıştır. Alman turistlerin bütünleşik tehditleri Rus turistlere nazaran daha fazla hissettikleri ve Alman turistlerin Rus turistlere karşı önyargılı davrandıkları belirlenmiştir. 

 

Kaynakça

  • Aberson, C. L. and Gaffney, A. M. (2008). An Integrated Threat Model of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 39, pp. 808 – 830.
  • Akış Roney, S. (2011). Turizm Bir Sistemin Analizi. Detay Publication, Ankara.
  • Avcıkurt, C. (2015). Turizm Sosyolojisi, Genel ve Yapısal Yaklaşım. Detay Publication, Ankara.
  • Bayık Temel, A. (2011). Çok Kültürlülük ve Kültürlerarası İletişimin Sağlık Hizmetlerinin Sunumuna Etkileri. Erol Esen and Zeliha Yazıcı (Ed.). Onlar Bizim Hemşehrimiz Uluslararası Göç ve Hizmetlerin Kültürlerarası Açılımı. Siyasal Publication, Ankara.
  • Berrenberg, J. L., Finlay, K. A., Stephan, W. G. and Stephan, C. (2002). Prejudice Toward People With Cancer or AIDS: Applying The Integretad Threat Model. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 75 – 86.
  • Brigham, J. C. (1971). Ethnic Stereotypes. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 76, pp. 15-38.
  • Colombo, M., Cherubini, P., Montali, L. and Marando, L. (2012). There’s Foreigner and Foreigner: Xenophobic Reasoning and Anti‐Immigrant Discourse. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 135 – 145.
  • Curşeu, P. L., Stoop, R. and Schalk, R. (2007). Prejudice Toward Immigrant Workers Among Dutch Employees: Integrated Threat Theory Revisited. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 37, pp. 125-140.
  • Emir, O. and Avan, A. (2010). Yabancı Turistlerin Satın Alma Karar Sürecinde Kültürel Varlıkların Etkisi: Konya Örneği. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Vol. 24, No. 2010, pp. 203 – 220.
  • Gonzales, K. V., Verkuyten, M., Weesie, J. and Poppe, E. (2008). Prejudice Towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing Integrated Threat Theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 47, pp. 667 – 685.
  • Heimtun, B. and Jordan, F. (2011). “Wish YOU Weren’t Here!”: Interpersonal Conflicts and the Touristic Experiences of Norwegian and British Women Travelling with Friends. Tourist Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 271 – 290.
  • http://www.antalyakulturturizm.gov.tr/TR,90679/yabanci-ziyaretci-sayilari-ve-milliyet-dagilimi-2014-yi-.html, 26.03.2015.
  • http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1072, 26.03.2015.
  • http://www.tursab.org.tr/tr/istatistikler, 26.03.2015.
  • Kunduz, C. Ö. (2009). An Exploration of The Predictors of Prejudice Among Students With And Without Headcover. Unpublished Master Thesis, Boğaziçi University, İstanbul.
  • Landauer, M., Haider, W. and Pröbstl-Haider, U. (2013). The Influence of Culture on Climate Change Adaptation Strategies: Preferences of Cross-Country Skiers in Austria and Finland. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 96 – 110.
  • Lippmann, W. (1998). Public Opinion: With a New Introduction by Micheal Curtis. New Branswick and London: Transaction Publishers.
  • Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E. and Voci, A. (2004). Effects of Direct and Indirect Cross-Group Friendships on Judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The Mediating Role of an Anxiety-Reduction Mechanism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 30, pp. 770 – 788.
  • Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup Contact Theory. Annual Review Psychology, Vol. 49, pp. 65 – 85.
  • Plant, E. A. and Devine, P. G. (2003). The Antecedents and Implications of Interracial Anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 29, pp. 790 – 803.
  • Redmond, B. F. (2013). Intergroup Theories (Integrated Threat, Socia Identity and Social Dominance. https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/PSYCH484/8.+Intergroup+Theories+(Integrated+Threat,+Social+Identity,+and+Social+Dominance), 20.10.2014.
  • Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W. and Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Intergroup Threat and Outgroup Attitudes: A Meta-Analytic Review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 10, pp. 336 – 355.
  • Sağır, A. (2011). Kültürel Bütünleşme Bağlamında Antalya’nın Finike İlçesi’ne Yerleşen Turistlerin Sosyolojik Çözümlemesi. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 49 – 64.
  • Stephan, C. W., Stephan, W. G., Demitrakis, K. M., Yamada, A. M. and Clason, D. L. (2000a). Women's Attitudes Toward Men: An Integrated Threat Theory Approach. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 24, pp. 63 – 75.
  • Stephan, W. G. and Renfro, L. (2002). The Role Of Threat In Intergroup Relations. In D. Mackie & E. Smith (Ed.). From Prejudice To Intergroup Emotions: Differentiated Reactions To Social Groups. Psychology Press, New York, pp. 265–283.
  • Stephan, W. G. and Stephan, C. W. (1996). Predicting Prejudice. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 20, pp. 409 – 426.
  • Stephan, W. G., Diaz-Loving, R. and Duran, A. (2000b). Integrated Threat Theory and Intercultural Attitudes: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 240 – 251.
  • Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O. and Bachman, G. (1999). Prejudice Toward Immigrants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 2221 – 2237.
  • Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O. and Morrison, K. R. (2007). Intergroup Threat Theory. T. Nelson (Ed.). Handbook of Prejudice. Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey.
  • Urry, J. (2009). Turist Bakışı. BilgeSu Publication, Ankara.
  • Ward, C. and Berno, T. (2011). Beyond Social Exchange Theory Attitudes Toward Tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 1556 –1569.
  • Yagi, C. (2003). Tourist Encounters with Other Tourists. Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, James Cook University, Australia.
  • Yu, J. and Lee, T. J. (2014). Impact of Tourists’ Intercultural Interactions. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 225 – 238.

Cross-Cultural Tourist Attitudes: A Search Within The Scope Of Integrated Threat Theory

Yıl 2016, Cilt 5, Sayı 8, 2541 - 2563, 25.12.2016
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.281503

Öz

 

With this study it is aimed to specify the mutual attitudes among different-nation groups, the result of these attitudes, and their threat perceive from other group. The theoritic base of this search has been conducted around culture, cultural differences, attitude, cross-cultural tourist attitudes, cultural differences of German and Russian tourists, theories about tourist interactions, integrated threat theory and prejudice. Questionnaire forms were developed by light of theoritic study and conducted on 871 German and Russian costumers between June, July and August in 2015. Generally, it can be concluded that German and Russian people have had a troubled past and have always had difficulties for getting along with each other. It is revealled that German tourists feel integrated threats more than Russian tourists and German tourists are biased to Russian tourists.

Kaynakça

  • Aberson, C. L. and Gaffney, A. M. (2008). An Integrated Threat Model of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 39, pp. 808 – 830.
  • Akış Roney, S. (2011). Turizm Bir Sistemin Analizi. Detay Publication, Ankara.
  • Avcıkurt, C. (2015). Turizm Sosyolojisi, Genel ve Yapısal Yaklaşım. Detay Publication, Ankara.
  • Bayık Temel, A. (2011). Çok Kültürlülük ve Kültürlerarası İletişimin Sağlık Hizmetlerinin Sunumuna Etkileri. Erol Esen and Zeliha Yazıcı (Ed.). Onlar Bizim Hemşehrimiz Uluslararası Göç ve Hizmetlerin Kültürlerarası Açılımı. Siyasal Publication, Ankara.
  • Berrenberg, J. L., Finlay, K. A., Stephan, W. G. and Stephan, C. (2002). Prejudice Toward People With Cancer or AIDS: Applying The Integretad Threat Model. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 75 – 86.
  • Brigham, J. C. (1971). Ethnic Stereotypes. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 76, pp. 15-38.
  • Colombo, M., Cherubini, P., Montali, L. and Marando, L. (2012). There’s Foreigner and Foreigner: Xenophobic Reasoning and Anti‐Immigrant Discourse. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 135 – 145.
  • Curşeu, P. L., Stoop, R. and Schalk, R. (2007). Prejudice Toward Immigrant Workers Among Dutch Employees: Integrated Threat Theory Revisited. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 37, pp. 125-140.
  • Emir, O. and Avan, A. (2010). Yabancı Turistlerin Satın Alma Karar Sürecinde Kültürel Varlıkların Etkisi: Konya Örneği. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Vol. 24, No. 2010, pp. 203 – 220.
  • Gonzales, K. V., Verkuyten, M., Weesie, J. and Poppe, E. (2008). Prejudice Towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing Integrated Threat Theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 47, pp. 667 – 685.
  • Heimtun, B. and Jordan, F. (2011). “Wish YOU Weren’t Here!”: Interpersonal Conflicts and the Touristic Experiences of Norwegian and British Women Travelling with Friends. Tourist Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 271 – 290.
  • http://www.antalyakulturturizm.gov.tr/TR,90679/yabanci-ziyaretci-sayilari-ve-milliyet-dagilimi-2014-yi-.html, 26.03.2015.
  • http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1072, 26.03.2015.
  • http://www.tursab.org.tr/tr/istatistikler, 26.03.2015.
  • Kunduz, C. Ö. (2009). An Exploration of The Predictors of Prejudice Among Students With And Without Headcover. Unpublished Master Thesis, Boğaziçi University, İstanbul.
  • Landauer, M., Haider, W. and Pröbstl-Haider, U. (2013). The Influence of Culture on Climate Change Adaptation Strategies: Preferences of Cross-Country Skiers in Austria and Finland. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 96 – 110.
  • Lippmann, W. (1998). Public Opinion: With a New Introduction by Micheal Curtis. New Branswick and London: Transaction Publishers.
  • Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E. and Voci, A. (2004). Effects of Direct and Indirect Cross-Group Friendships on Judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The Mediating Role of an Anxiety-Reduction Mechanism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 30, pp. 770 – 788.
  • Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup Contact Theory. Annual Review Psychology, Vol. 49, pp. 65 – 85.
  • Plant, E. A. and Devine, P. G. (2003). The Antecedents and Implications of Interracial Anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 29, pp. 790 – 803.
  • Redmond, B. F. (2013). Intergroup Theories (Integrated Threat, Socia Identity and Social Dominance. https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/PSYCH484/8.+Intergroup+Theories+(Integrated+Threat,+Social+Identity,+and+Social+Dominance), 20.10.2014.
  • Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W. and Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Intergroup Threat and Outgroup Attitudes: A Meta-Analytic Review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 10, pp. 336 – 355.
  • Sağır, A. (2011). Kültürel Bütünleşme Bağlamında Antalya’nın Finike İlçesi’ne Yerleşen Turistlerin Sosyolojik Çözümlemesi. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 49 – 64.
  • Stephan, C. W., Stephan, W. G., Demitrakis, K. M., Yamada, A. M. and Clason, D. L. (2000a). Women's Attitudes Toward Men: An Integrated Threat Theory Approach. Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 24, pp. 63 – 75.
  • Stephan, W. G. and Renfro, L. (2002). The Role Of Threat In Intergroup Relations. In D. Mackie & E. Smith (Ed.). From Prejudice To Intergroup Emotions: Differentiated Reactions To Social Groups. Psychology Press, New York, pp. 265–283.
  • Stephan, W. G. and Stephan, C. W. (1996). Predicting Prejudice. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 20, pp. 409 – 426.
  • Stephan, W. G., Diaz-Loving, R. and Duran, A. (2000b). Integrated Threat Theory and Intercultural Attitudes: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 240 – 251.
  • Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O. and Bachman, G. (1999). Prejudice Toward Immigrants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 2221 – 2237.
  • Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O. and Morrison, K. R. (2007). Intergroup Threat Theory. T. Nelson (Ed.). Handbook of Prejudice. Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey.
  • Urry, J. (2009). Turist Bakışı. BilgeSu Publication, Ankara.
  • Ward, C. and Berno, T. (2011). Beyond Social Exchange Theory Attitudes Toward Tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 1556 –1569.
  • Yagi, C. (2003). Tourist Encounters with Other Tourists. Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, James Cook University, Australia.
  • Yu, J. and Lee, T. J. (2014). Impact of Tourists’ Intercultural Interactions. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 225 – 238.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Gencay SAATCI Bu kişi benim
ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ


Cevdet AVCIKURT
BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Aralık 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Aralık 2016
Kabul Tarihi 15 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 5, Sayı 8

Kaynak Göster

APA Saatcı, G. & Avcıkurt, C. (2016). Kültürlerarası Turist Tutumları: Bütünleşik Tehdit Teorisi Çerçevesinde Bir Araştırma . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 5 (8) , 2541-2563 . DOI: 10.15869/itobiad.281503
  • 13873 13860 13861 13864138631386513866 

  • 13867 13868 13869 13870 1387122476

Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.