Research Article
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

The Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in The Manufacturing Industry Between Turkey and The European Union Countries

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, 3369 - 3397, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.887238

Abstract

Traditional foreign trade theories explain inter-industry foreign trade that arises from factor endowment differences. In other words, traditional foreign trade theories argue that inter-industry trade takes place between countries with different levels of development. In this context, these theories are insufficient to explain foreign trade between countries with same levels of development. The concept of intra-industry trade was used to explain foreign trade between developed countries, and then it was also used for foreign trade between countries with different levels of development. When evaluated from this point of view, the concept of intra-industry trade has an important place in both economics and foreign trade literature.
When Turkey's foreign trade data is examined; EU (European Union) as a foreign trade partner and the manufacturing industry as a sector come to the fore. The main purpose of this study is to measure intra-industry trade between Turkey and EU countries in the manufacturing industry for the period 1996-2017 and is analyzing the determinants.
In the literature, there are many indices with static, semi-dynamic and dynamic properties to measure intra-industry trade. In this study, while measuring the level of intra-industry trade, GL (Grubel-Lloyd) index was used. Also, in the analysis that is revealed the determinants of intra-industry trade, AE (Aquino) index in addition to GL index was used. System Generalized Method of Moments (SGMM) was used for revealing the determinants of intra-industry trade between Turkey and EU countries Turkey in the manufacturing industry. According to the GL index, more than 40% of foreign trade of Turkey’s manufacturing industry with Spain and Italy consists of intra-industry trade. According to the SGMM results, the variables that are insignificant in both the GL index and the AE index are the trade openness of the trading partner and border neighborhood. SGMM results show that the increases of the GDP (gross domestic product) difference, GDP per capita difference, trade openness difference, distance between the two countries and trade imbalance decrease intra-industry trade in the manufacturing industry. In addition, the increases of the average GDP of two countries, Turkey’s trade openness against the trading partner and trade intensity raises intra-industry trade in the manufacturing industry. It was determined that sharing the same sea, which is considered as a dummy variable in the analysis, positively affects intra-industry trade.

References

  • Abd-el-Rahman, K. (1991). Firms’ Competitive and National Comparative Advantages as Joint Determinants of Trade Composition. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 127/ H. 1), 83-97.
  • Abonazel, M. R. (2016). Bias Correction Methods for Dynamic Panel Data Models With Fixed Effects. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/70628/1/MPRA_paper_70628.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Abraham, F. ve Hove, J. V. (2005). Intra-Industry Trade and Technological Innovation: The Case of Belgian Manufacturing. https://www.etsg.org/ETSG2005/papers/vanhove.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 26.04.2020.
  • Anderson, T. W. ve Hsiao, C. (1981). Estimation of Dynamic Models With Error Components. Journal of the American statistical Association, 76 (375), 598-606.
  • Anderson, T. W. ve Hsiao, C. (1982). Formulation and Estimation of Dynamic Models Using Panel Data. Journal of Econometrics, 18 (1), 47-82.
  • Andresen, M. A. (2003). Empirical Intra-Industry Trade: What We Know and What We Need to Know. http://www.sfu.ca/~andresen/papers/Empirical_IIT_Lit_Review.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 09.09.2019.
  • Aquino, A. (1978). Intra-Industry Trade and Inter-Industry Specialization as Concurrent Sources of International Trade in Manufactures. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 114/ H. 2), 275-296.
  • Arellano, M. ve Bond, S. (1991). Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. Review of Economic Studies, 58 (2), 277-297.
  • Arellano, M. ve Bover, O. (1995). Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models. Journal of Econometrics, 68 (1), 29-51.
  • Ashley, R. A. ve Sun, X. (2016). Subset-Continuous-Updating GMM Estimators for Dynamic Panel Data Models. Econometrics, 4 (4), 47, 1-13.
  • Azhar, A. K. M. ve Elliott, R. J. R. (2003). On the Measurement of Trade-Induced Adjustment. Review of World Economics, 139 (3), 419-439.
  • Bagchi S. ve Bhattacharyya S. (2019). Country-Specific Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in India. Foreign Trade Review, 54 (3), 129-158.
  • Balassa, B. (1966). Tariff Reductions and Trade in Manufacturers among the Industrial Countries. The American Economic Review, 56 (3), 466-473.
  • Balassa, B. (1979). Intra-Industry Trade and the Integration of Developing Countries in the World Economy. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/282011468739553225/pdf/multi0page.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Balassa, B. (1984). The Determinants of Intra-Industry Specialization in United States Trade. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/790221468318538273/pdf/DRD86000The0de00United0States0trade.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Balassa, B. (1986). The Determinants of Intra-Industry Specialization in United States Trade. Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 38 (2), 220-233.
  • Balassa, B. ve Bauwens, L. (1987). Intra-Industry Specialisation in a Multi-Country and Multi-Industry Framework. The Economic Journal, 97 (388), 923-939.
  • Ballance, R. H., Forstner, H. ve Sawyer, W. C. (1992). An Empirical Examination of The Role of Vertical Product Differentiation in North-South Trade. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 128 (2), 330-338.
  • Bhattacharyya, R. (2002). Vertical and Horizontal Intra Industry Trade in Some Asian and Latin American Less Developed Countries. Journal of Economic Integration, 17 (2), 273-296.
  • Blundell, R. ve Bond, S. (1998). Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models. Journal of Econometrics, 87 (1), 115-143.
  • Brülhart, M. (1994). Marginal Intra-Industry Trade: Measurement and Relevance for the Pattern of Industrial Adjustment. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 130/ H. 3), 600-613.
  • Brülhart, M. (1994). Marginal Intra-Industry Trade: Measurement and Relevance for the Pattern of Industrial Adjustment. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 130/ H. 3), 600-613.
  • Caves, R. E. (1981). Intra-Industry Trade and Market Structure in the Industrial Countries. Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 33 (2), 203-223.
  • Chakraborty, S. (2017). Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural Products Between the United States, NAFTA and European Union Trading Partners. https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2176&context=etd, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Chemsripong, S. (2012). The Extent of Intra Industry Trade Between Thailand and ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). (Editör: V. Bobek). International Trade from Economic and Policy Perspective. 39-66.
  • Ciocchini, F. J. (2006). Dynamic Panel Data: A Brief Survey of Estimation Methods. https://repositorio.uca.edu.ar/bitstream/123456789/2394/1/dynamic-panel-data.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.04.2020.
  • Clark, D. P. ve Stanley, D. L. (1999). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade Between Developing Countries and the United States. Journal of Economic Development, 24 (2), 79-95.
  • Ćuzović, Đ. ve Sokolov-Mladenović, S. (2021). Agricultural Intra-Industry Trade in Serbia. TEME, XLV (1), 349-366.
  • Çepni, E.ve Köse, N. (2003). Intra-Industry Trade Patterns of Turkey: A panel Study. G.Ü. İ.İ.B.F Dergisi, 5 (3), 13-28.
  • Çeştepe, H., Ergün, H. ve Zorlu, S. (2017). The Level and Structure of Turkey’s Intra-Industry Trade with Countries of Organization of The Black Sea Economic Cooperation. Bartın Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, 8 (15), 343-362.
  • Çoban, A., Baysal Kurt, D. ve Çoban, O. (2015). An Analysis of Tourism Sector with The Grubel-Lloyd Index: The Case of Turkey and Selected Countries. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 8 (7), 223-231.
  • Das, G. G. (2003). Growth and Pattern of Intra-Industry Trade in Manufactures in India’s Overall Trade: A Quantitative Analysis. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/37919/1/MPRA_paper_37919.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.04.2020.
  • DC (Distance Calculator) (2018). https://www.distance.to/, Erişim Tarihi: 28.07.2018.
  • Demir, M. A. (2020). Endüstri-İçi Ticaretin Grubel-Lloyd Yöntemi ile Analizi. International Journal of Disciplines Economics & Administrative Sciences Studies, 6 (18), 356-365.
  • Demirtaş, G. ve Turan, E. (2020). Endüstri-İçi Ticaretin Belirleyicisi Olarak Uluslararası Göç Akımları: Türkiye’de Giyim Sektörü Üzerine Ampirik Bir Analiz. Uluslararası Yönetim ve İşletme Dergisi, 16 (4), 794-816.
  • Dixon, P. B. ve Menon, J. (1995). Measures of Intra‐Industry Trade as Indicators of Factor Market Disruption. http://www.copsmodels.com/ftp/workpapr/g-113.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.09.2019.
  • Dixon, P. B. ve Menon, J. (1997). Measures of Intra‐Industry Trade as Indicators of Factor Market Disruption. The Economic Record, 73 (222), 233-247.
  • Doğaner Gönel, F. (2001). How Important Is Intra-Industry Trade between Turkey and Its Trading Partners? A Comparison between the European Union and Central Asia Turkic Republics. Russian & East European Finance and Trade, 37 (4), 61-76.
  • Ekanayake, E. M. (2001). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade: The Case of Mexico. The International Trade Journal, 15 (1), 89-112.
  • Falvey, R. E. (1981). Commercial Policy and Intra-Industry Trade. Journal of International Economics, 11 (4), 495-511.
  • Finger, J. M. (1975). Trade Overlap and Intra-Industry Trade. Economic Inpuiry, 13 (4), 581-589.
  • Flam, H. ve Helpman, E. (1987). Vertical Product Differentiation and North-South Trade. The American Economic Review, 77 (5), 810-822.
  • Fontagné, L. ve Freudenberg, M. (1997). Intra- Trade: Methodological Issues Reconsidered. http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/1997/wp1997-01.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 10.08.2019.
  • Fontagné, L., Freudenberg, M. ve Gaulier, G. (2005). Disentangling Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade. http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2005/wp2005-10.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 20.08.2019.
  • Gebreselasie, T. G. ve Jordaan, A. C. (2009). Intra-Industry Trade in The Manufacturing Sector of South Africa. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f1af/f1da35a563d2623877f71cabcb783f15fd2b.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Gilbert, J., Beladi, H. ve Oladi, R. (2014). On North-South Intra- and Inter-Industry Trade and Welfare. http://interim.business.utsa.edu/wps/eco/0001ECO-414-2014.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Gray, H. P. (1973). Two-Way International Trade in Manufactures: A Theoretical Underpinning. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 109), 19-39.
  • Greenaway, D. ve Milner, C. (1983). On the Measurement of Intra-Industry Trade. The Economic Journal, 93 (372), 900-908.
  • Greenaway, D., Hine, R. C., Milner, C. ve Elliott, R. (1994). Adjustment and the Measurement of Marginal Intra-Industry Trade. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 130/ H. 2), 418-427.
  • Greenaway, D., Hine, R. ve Milner, C. (1995). Vertical and Horizontal Intra-Industry Trade: A Cross Industry Analysis for the United Kingdom. The Economic Journal, 105 (433), 1505-1518.
  • Greenaway, D., Milner, C. ve Elliott, R. J. R. (1999). UK Intra-Industry Trade With The EU North and South. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61 (3), 365-384.
  • Grubel, H. ve Lloyd, P. J. (1975). Intra Industry Trade The Theory and Measurement of International Trade in Differentiated Products (1. Baskı). London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd.
  • Hamilton, C. ve Kniest, P. (1991). Trade Liberalisation, Structural Adjustment and Intra-Industry Trade: A Note. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 127 (2), 356-367.
  • Handjiski, B., Lucas, R., Martin, P. ve Sarisoy Guerin, S. (2010). Enhancing Regional Trade Integration in Southeast Europe. http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/delegations/the_former_yugoslav_republic_of_macedonia/documents/eu_the_former_yugoslav_republic_of_macedonia/etise_en.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 17.08.2019.
  • Havrylyshyn, O. ve Civan, E. (1985). Intra-industry Trade Among Developing Countries. Journal of Development Economics, 18 (2-3), 253-271.
  • Hayakawa, K. (2007). Small Sample Bias Properties of the System GMM Estimator in Dynamic Panel Data Models. Economics Letters, 95 (1), 32-38.
  • Helpman, E. ve Krugman, P. R. (1985). Market Structure and Foreign Trade Increasing Returns, Imperfect Competition, and the International Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Jing, W., Leitão, N. C., ve Faustino, H. C. (2010). Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural Products: The Case of China. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6507058.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Jošić H. ve Žmuk, B. (2020). Intra-Industry Trade in Croatia: Trends and Determinants. Croatian Economic Survey, 22 (1), 5-39.
  • Kawecka-Wyrzykowska, E. (2009). Evolving Pattern of Intra-Industry Trade Specialization of The New Member States (NMS) of The EU: The Case of Automotive Industry. https://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/pages/publication14289_en.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Kinnerup, K. (2005). Country-Specific Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade - The Case of France. https://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1334655&fileOId=1647266, Erişim Tarihi: 28.02.2020.
  • Kol, J. ve Tharakan, P. K. M. (1989). Intra-Industry Trade, Traditional Trade Theory and its Extensions. (Editörler: P. K. M. Tharakan ve J. Kol). Intra-Industry Trade Theory, Evidence and Extensions. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 1-14.
  • Kucukefe, B. (2011). Intra Industry Trade in Textile and Clothing Industry: The Case of Turkey. International Review of Business Research Papers, 7 (1), 176-190.
  • Kuosku, C. (2013). How has the Swedish Intra-Industry Trade been Affected by the Eurozone Crisis?. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:632927/FULLTEXT01, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Küçükahmetoğlu, O. (2001). Endüstri İçi Ticaret ve Türkiye. Avrupa Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9 (2), 129-153.
  • Küçükahmetoğlu, O. ve Aydın, A. (2015). Türkiye’nin Ticari Hizmetler Endüstri-İçi Ticareti: Ülkeye Özgü Belirleyicilerin Tespiti Üzerine Bir Uygulama. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 13 (1), 326-347.
  • Łapińska, J. (2014). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products between Poland and EU Countries. Law and Economics Review, 5 (3), 159-172.
  • Lee, H-H. ve Lee, Y-Y. (1993). Intra-Industry Trade in Manufactures: The Case of Korea. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 129/H. 1), 159-171.
  • Leitão, N. C. (2011). Intra-Industry Trade in Tourism Services. http://store.ectap.ro/articole/601.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 10.04.2020.
  • Leitão, N. C. ve Faustino, H. C. (2008). Intra-Industry Trade in the Food Processing Sector: The Portuguese Case. Journal of Global Business and Technology, 4 (1), 49-58.
  • Li, D., Moshirian, F. ve Sim, A-B. (2003). The Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Insurance Services. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 70 (2), 269-287.
  • Licandro, O. ve Ruiz, A. N. (2010). Trade Liberalization, Competition and Growth. http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/35041/1/80610.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Loertscher, R. ve Wolter, F. (1980). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade: Among Countries and Across Industries. Review of World Economics, 116 (2), 280-293.
  • Mangır, F. ve Fidan, A. (2017). Grubel-Lloyd Endeksi İle Endüstri-İçi Ticaret Analizi: Tarım Sektörü Türkiye Örneği. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 19 (33), 45-51.
  • Manrique, G. G. (1987). Intra-Industry Trade between Developed and Developing Countries: The United States and the NICs. The Journal of Developing Areas, 21 (4), 481-494.
  • Mansouri, A. ve Ahangari A. (2020). The Impact of Neighborhood on Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade (A Spatial Panel Econometric Approach). Iranian Economic Review, 24 (1), 19-39.
  • Marius-Răzvan, S. ve Camelia, S. (2015). Analysis of the Intra-Industry Trade for the Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Sector from Romania. Procedia Economics and Finance, 22, 343-352.
  • Menon, J. ve Dixon, P. B. (1996a). Regional Trading Agreements and Intra-Industry Trade. Journal of Economic Integration, 11 (1), 1-20.
  • Menon, J. ve Dixon, P. B. (1996b). How Important is Intra-lndustry Trade in Trade Growth?. Open Economies Review, 7 (2), 161-175.
  • Mulenga, M. C. (2012). An Investigation of the Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade Between Zambia and its Trading Partners in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a00b/9184db6a3e5fd7f0138310b9e97e20ad7a96.pdf?_ga=2.199988590.1111031157.1587645205-1091075543.1582998222, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Nguyen, H. M., Quan, B. Q. M., Le, H. V. ve Tran, T. V. (2020). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade between Vietnam and Countries in TPP. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7 (1), 123-129.
  • Nilsson, L. (1997). The Measurement of Intra-Industry Trade between Unequal Partners. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 133/H. 3), 554-565.
  • Nilsson, L. (1999). Two-Way Trade between Unequal Partners: The EU and the Developing Countries. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 135/H. 1), 102-127.
  • Nowak, J-J., Petit, S. ve Sahli, M. (2013). Intra-industry Trade and Vertical Differentiation in Tourism Services. http://www.univ-valenciennes.fr/sites/default/files/pdf/wp-idp-2013-1.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 02.04.2020.
  • Piper, A. T. (2014). The Benefits, Challenges and Insights of a Dynamic Panel Assessment of Life Satisfaction. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/59556/1/MPRA_paper_59556.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Rajan, R. S. (1996). Measures of Intra-Industry Trade Reconsidered with Reference to Singapore’s Bilateral Trade with Japan and the United States. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 132/ H. 2), 378-389.
  • Roodman, D. (2009). How to do xtabond2: An Introduction to Difference and System GMM in Stata. The Stata Journal, 9 (1), 86-136.
  • Saparamadu, T. ve Weerasinghe, V. (2021). What Leads to Intra-Industry Trade between Sri Lanka and South Asia?. Economics and Business Quarterly Reviews, 4 (2), 1-9.
  • Sawyer, W. C., Sprinkle, R. L. ve Tochkov, K. (2010). Patterns and Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Asia. Journal of Asian Economics, 21 (5), 485-493.
  • Sen, A., Saray, M. Ozan ve Karagoz, Murat (2009). Intra-Industry Trade between Turkey and OECD Countries: A Panel Data Analysis. Zagreb International Review of Economics & Business, 12 (2), 73-86.
  • Sledziewska, K. ve Czarny, E. (2016). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade of the New Member States. Journal of Economic and Social Development, 3 (1), 147-156.
  • Şentürk, C. (2014). Endüstri İçi Ticaretin Belirleyicileri: Türkiye’nin İmalat Sanayi Endüstri İçi Ticaretine Yönelik Panel Veri Analizi. Doktora Tezi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Şentürk, C. ve Kösekahyaoğlu, L. (2014). Türkiye’nin Endüstri İçi Ticaretinin Ülke ve Politika Temelli Belirleyicilerine Yönelik Bir Uygulama. Marmara Üniversitesi İ.İ.B. Dergisi, XXXVI (II), 299-325.
  • Şimşek, N. (2008). Türkiye’nin Endüstri-İçi Dış Ticaretinin Analizi (1. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta.
  • Tharakan, P. K. M. (1984). Intra-Industry Trade Between The Industrial Countries and The Developing World. European Economic Review, 26 (1-2), 213-227.
  • Thom, R. ve McDowell, M. (1999). Measuring Marginal Intra-Industry Trade. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 135 (1), 48-61.
  • Turkcan, K. ve Ates, A. (2010). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in the U.S. Auto-Industry. Journal of International and Global Economic Studies, 2 (2), 15-46.
  • TÜİK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu) (2018). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/disticaretapp/menu.zul, Erişim Tarihi: 13.07.2018.
  • TÜİK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu) (2020). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri (Özel Ticaret Sistemi). https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/disticaretapp/menu.zul, Erişim Tarihi: 02.03.2020.
  • Ürüt Saygın, S. (2020). Demir Çelik Sektöründe Endüstri İçi Ticaret: Türkiye ve AB Ülkeleri Üzerine Bir Analiz. Vizyoner Dergisi, 11 (Ek), 102-116.
  • Vidya, C. T. ve Prabheesh, K. P. (2019). Intra-Industry Trade Between India and Indonesia. Bulletin of Economics and Banking, 21 (12th BMEB Call for Papers Special Issue (2019)), 511-530.
  • WB (World Bank) (2018). World Development Indicators. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators, Erişim Tarihi: 25.08.2018.
  • Webster, A., Fletcher, J., Hardwick, P. ve Morakabati, Y. (2007). Tourism and Empirical Applications of International Trade Theory: A Multi-Country Analysis. Tourism Economics, 13 (4), 657-674.
  • Youssef, A. H., El-Sheikh, A. A. ve Abonazel, M. R. (2014). Improving the Efficiency of GMM Estimators for Dynamic Panel Models. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/68675/1/MPRA_paper_68675.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.

Türkiye ile Avrupa Birliği Ülkeleri Arasındaki İmalat Sanayi Endüstri İçi Ticaretin Belirleyicileri

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4, 3369 - 3397, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.887238

Abstract

Geleneksel dış ticaret teorileri, faktör donatım farklılıklarından ortaya çıkan endüstriler arası dış ticareti açıklamaktadır. Başka bir deyişle, geleneksel dış ticaret teorileri, endüstriler arası ticaretin gelişmişlik düzeyi farklı ülkeler arasında gerçekleştiğini savunmaktadır. Bu bağlamda bu teoriler, gelişmişlik düzeyi aynı olan ülkeler arasındaki dış ticareti açıklamakta yetersiz kalmaktadır. Endüstri içi ticaret kavramı, önceleri gelişmiş ülkelerin arasındaki dış ticareti açıklamak için kullanılmış olup, daha sonra gelişmişlik düzeyleri farklı ülkeler arasındaki dış ticaret için de kullanılmıştır. Bu açıdan değerlendirildiğinde, endüstri içi ticaret kavramı hem iktisat hem de dış ticaret literatüründe önemli yere sahiptir.
Türkiye’nin dış ticareti verileri incelendiğinde; dış ticaret ortağı olarak AB (Avrupa Birliği) ve sektör olarak imalat sanayi ön plana çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, 1996-2017 döneminde Türkiye ile AB ülkeleri arasında imalat sanayi endüstri içi ticaretinin ölçülmesi ve belirleyicilerinin analiz edilmesidir.
Literatürde endüstri içi ticareti ölçmek için statik, yarı dinamik ve dinamik özellikli birçok endeks yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada ise, endüstri içi ticaretin seviyesini ölçerken GL (Grubel-Lloyd) endeksinden faydalanılmıştır. Ayrıca endüstri içi ticaretin belirleyicilerinin ortaya konduğu analizlerde GL endeksinin yanı sıra AE (Aquino) endeksi kullanılmıştır. Türkiye ile AB ülkeleri arasındaki imalat sanayi endüstri içi ticaretin belirleyicilerinin ortaya koymak amacıyla SGMM (Sistem Genelleştirilmiş Momentler Metodu) kullanılmıştır. GL endeksine göre, Türkiye’nin İtalya ve İspanya ile olan imalat sanayi dış ticaretinin %40’dan fazlası endüstri içi ticaretten oluşmaktadır. SGMM sonuçlarına göre, hem GL endeksinde hem de AE endeksinde anlamsız çıkan değişkenler, ticaret ortağının ticari açıklığı ve sınır komşuluğudur. SGMM sonuçları, iki ülke arasındaki GSYH (gayri safi yurt içi hasıla) farkı, kişi başı GSYH farkı, ticari açıklık farkı, uzaklık ve ticari dengesizlik arttıkça imalat sanayi endüstri içi ticaretin azaldığını göstermektedir. Ayrıca iki ülke GSYH ortalaması, Türkiye’nin ticaret ortağına ticari açıklığı ve ticari yoğunluğu arttıkça ise imalat sanayi endüstri içi ticaret artmaktadır. Analizde kukla değişken olarak dikkate alınan aynı denizi paylaşmanın endüstri içi ticareti pozitif yönde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir.

References

  • Abd-el-Rahman, K. (1991). Firms’ Competitive and National Comparative Advantages as Joint Determinants of Trade Composition. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 127/ H. 1), 83-97.
  • Abonazel, M. R. (2016). Bias Correction Methods for Dynamic Panel Data Models With Fixed Effects. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/70628/1/MPRA_paper_70628.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Abraham, F. ve Hove, J. V. (2005). Intra-Industry Trade and Technological Innovation: The Case of Belgian Manufacturing. https://www.etsg.org/ETSG2005/papers/vanhove.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 26.04.2020.
  • Anderson, T. W. ve Hsiao, C. (1981). Estimation of Dynamic Models With Error Components. Journal of the American statistical Association, 76 (375), 598-606.
  • Anderson, T. W. ve Hsiao, C. (1982). Formulation and Estimation of Dynamic Models Using Panel Data. Journal of Econometrics, 18 (1), 47-82.
  • Andresen, M. A. (2003). Empirical Intra-Industry Trade: What We Know and What We Need to Know. http://www.sfu.ca/~andresen/papers/Empirical_IIT_Lit_Review.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 09.09.2019.
  • Aquino, A. (1978). Intra-Industry Trade and Inter-Industry Specialization as Concurrent Sources of International Trade in Manufactures. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 114/ H. 2), 275-296.
  • Arellano, M. ve Bond, S. (1991). Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. Review of Economic Studies, 58 (2), 277-297.
  • Arellano, M. ve Bover, O. (1995). Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models. Journal of Econometrics, 68 (1), 29-51.
  • Ashley, R. A. ve Sun, X. (2016). Subset-Continuous-Updating GMM Estimators for Dynamic Panel Data Models. Econometrics, 4 (4), 47, 1-13.
  • Azhar, A. K. M. ve Elliott, R. J. R. (2003). On the Measurement of Trade-Induced Adjustment. Review of World Economics, 139 (3), 419-439.
  • Bagchi S. ve Bhattacharyya S. (2019). Country-Specific Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in India. Foreign Trade Review, 54 (3), 129-158.
  • Balassa, B. (1966). Tariff Reductions and Trade in Manufacturers among the Industrial Countries. The American Economic Review, 56 (3), 466-473.
  • Balassa, B. (1979). Intra-Industry Trade and the Integration of Developing Countries in the World Economy. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/282011468739553225/pdf/multi0page.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Balassa, B. (1984). The Determinants of Intra-Industry Specialization in United States Trade. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/790221468318538273/pdf/DRD86000The0de00United0States0trade.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Balassa, B. (1986). The Determinants of Intra-Industry Specialization in United States Trade. Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 38 (2), 220-233.
  • Balassa, B. ve Bauwens, L. (1987). Intra-Industry Specialisation in a Multi-Country and Multi-Industry Framework. The Economic Journal, 97 (388), 923-939.
  • Ballance, R. H., Forstner, H. ve Sawyer, W. C. (1992). An Empirical Examination of The Role of Vertical Product Differentiation in North-South Trade. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 128 (2), 330-338.
  • Bhattacharyya, R. (2002). Vertical and Horizontal Intra Industry Trade in Some Asian and Latin American Less Developed Countries. Journal of Economic Integration, 17 (2), 273-296.
  • Blundell, R. ve Bond, S. (1998). Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models. Journal of Econometrics, 87 (1), 115-143.
  • Brülhart, M. (1994). Marginal Intra-Industry Trade: Measurement and Relevance for the Pattern of Industrial Adjustment. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 130/ H. 3), 600-613.
  • Brülhart, M. (1994). Marginal Intra-Industry Trade: Measurement and Relevance for the Pattern of Industrial Adjustment. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 130/ H. 3), 600-613.
  • Caves, R. E. (1981). Intra-Industry Trade and Market Structure in the Industrial Countries. Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 33 (2), 203-223.
  • Chakraborty, S. (2017). Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural Products Between the United States, NAFTA and European Union Trading Partners. https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2176&context=etd, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Chemsripong, S. (2012). The Extent of Intra Industry Trade Between Thailand and ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). (Editör: V. Bobek). International Trade from Economic and Policy Perspective. 39-66.
  • Ciocchini, F. J. (2006). Dynamic Panel Data: A Brief Survey of Estimation Methods. https://repositorio.uca.edu.ar/bitstream/123456789/2394/1/dynamic-panel-data.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.04.2020.
  • Clark, D. P. ve Stanley, D. L. (1999). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade Between Developing Countries and the United States. Journal of Economic Development, 24 (2), 79-95.
  • Ćuzović, Đ. ve Sokolov-Mladenović, S. (2021). Agricultural Intra-Industry Trade in Serbia. TEME, XLV (1), 349-366.
  • Çepni, E.ve Köse, N. (2003). Intra-Industry Trade Patterns of Turkey: A panel Study. G.Ü. İ.İ.B.F Dergisi, 5 (3), 13-28.
  • Çeştepe, H., Ergün, H. ve Zorlu, S. (2017). The Level and Structure of Turkey’s Intra-Industry Trade with Countries of Organization of The Black Sea Economic Cooperation. Bartın Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, 8 (15), 343-362.
  • Çoban, A., Baysal Kurt, D. ve Çoban, O. (2015). An Analysis of Tourism Sector with The Grubel-Lloyd Index: The Case of Turkey and Selected Countries. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 8 (7), 223-231.
  • Das, G. G. (2003). Growth and Pattern of Intra-Industry Trade in Manufactures in India’s Overall Trade: A Quantitative Analysis. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/37919/1/MPRA_paper_37919.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.04.2020.
  • DC (Distance Calculator) (2018). https://www.distance.to/, Erişim Tarihi: 28.07.2018.
  • Demir, M. A. (2020). Endüstri-İçi Ticaretin Grubel-Lloyd Yöntemi ile Analizi. International Journal of Disciplines Economics & Administrative Sciences Studies, 6 (18), 356-365.
  • Demirtaş, G. ve Turan, E. (2020). Endüstri-İçi Ticaretin Belirleyicisi Olarak Uluslararası Göç Akımları: Türkiye’de Giyim Sektörü Üzerine Ampirik Bir Analiz. Uluslararası Yönetim ve İşletme Dergisi, 16 (4), 794-816.
  • Dixon, P. B. ve Menon, J. (1995). Measures of Intra‐Industry Trade as Indicators of Factor Market Disruption. http://www.copsmodels.com/ftp/workpapr/g-113.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.09.2019.
  • Dixon, P. B. ve Menon, J. (1997). Measures of Intra‐Industry Trade as Indicators of Factor Market Disruption. The Economic Record, 73 (222), 233-247.
  • Doğaner Gönel, F. (2001). How Important Is Intra-Industry Trade between Turkey and Its Trading Partners? A Comparison between the European Union and Central Asia Turkic Republics. Russian & East European Finance and Trade, 37 (4), 61-76.
  • Ekanayake, E. M. (2001). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade: The Case of Mexico. The International Trade Journal, 15 (1), 89-112.
  • Falvey, R. E. (1981). Commercial Policy and Intra-Industry Trade. Journal of International Economics, 11 (4), 495-511.
  • Finger, J. M. (1975). Trade Overlap and Intra-Industry Trade. Economic Inpuiry, 13 (4), 581-589.
  • Flam, H. ve Helpman, E. (1987). Vertical Product Differentiation and North-South Trade. The American Economic Review, 77 (5), 810-822.
  • Fontagné, L. ve Freudenberg, M. (1997). Intra- Trade: Methodological Issues Reconsidered. http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/1997/wp1997-01.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 10.08.2019.
  • Fontagné, L., Freudenberg, M. ve Gaulier, G. (2005). Disentangling Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade. http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2005/wp2005-10.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 20.08.2019.
  • Gebreselasie, T. G. ve Jordaan, A. C. (2009). Intra-Industry Trade in The Manufacturing Sector of South Africa. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f1af/f1da35a563d2623877f71cabcb783f15fd2b.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Gilbert, J., Beladi, H. ve Oladi, R. (2014). On North-South Intra- and Inter-Industry Trade and Welfare. http://interim.business.utsa.edu/wps/eco/0001ECO-414-2014.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Gray, H. P. (1973). Two-Way International Trade in Manufactures: A Theoretical Underpinning. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 109), 19-39.
  • Greenaway, D. ve Milner, C. (1983). On the Measurement of Intra-Industry Trade. The Economic Journal, 93 (372), 900-908.
  • Greenaway, D., Hine, R. C., Milner, C. ve Elliott, R. (1994). Adjustment and the Measurement of Marginal Intra-Industry Trade. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 130/ H. 2), 418-427.
  • Greenaway, D., Hine, R. ve Milner, C. (1995). Vertical and Horizontal Intra-Industry Trade: A Cross Industry Analysis for the United Kingdom. The Economic Journal, 105 (433), 1505-1518.
  • Greenaway, D., Milner, C. ve Elliott, R. J. R. (1999). UK Intra-Industry Trade With The EU North and South. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61 (3), 365-384.
  • Grubel, H. ve Lloyd, P. J. (1975). Intra Industry Trade The Theory and Measurement of International Trade in Differentiated Products (1. Baskı). London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd.
  • Hamilton, C. ve Kniest, P. (1991). Trade Liberalisation, Structural Adjustment and Intra-Industry Trade: A Note. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 127 (2), 356-367.
  • Handjiski, B., Lucas, R., Martin, P. ve Sarisoy Guerin, S. (2010). Enhancing Regional Trade Integration in Southeast Europe. http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/delegations/the_former_yugoslav_republic_of_macedonia/documents/eu_the_former_yugoslav_republic_of_macedonia/etise_en.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 17.08.2019.
  • Havrylyshyn, O. ve Civan, E. (1985). Intra-industry Trade Among Developing Countries. Journal of Development Economics, 18 (2-3), 253-271.
  • Hayakawa, K. (2007). Small Sample Bias Properties of the System GMM Estimator in Dynamic Panel Data Models. Economics Letters, 95 (1), 32-38.
  • Helpman, E. ve Krugman, P. R. (1985). Market Structure and Foreign Trade Increasing Returns, Imperfect Competition, and the International Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Jing, W., Leitão, N. C., ve Faustino, H. C. (2010). Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural Products: The Case of China. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6507058.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Jošić H. ve Žmuk, B. (2020). Intra-Industry Trade in Croatia: Trends and Determinants. Croatian Economic Survey, 22 (1), 5-39.
  • Kawecka-Wyrzykowska, E. (2009). Evolving Pattern of Intra-Industry Trade Specialization of The New Member States (NMS) of The EU: The Case of Automotive Industry. https://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/pages/publication14289_en.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 19.08.2019.
  • Kinnerup, K. (2005). Country-Specific Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade - The Case of France. https://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1334655&fileOId=1647266, Erişim Tarihi: 28.02.2020.
  • Kol, J. ve Tharakan, P. K. M. (1989). Intra-Industry Trade, Traditional Trade Theory and its Extensions. (Editörler: P. K. M. Tharakan ve J. Kol). Intra-Industry Trade Theory, Evidence and Extensions. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 1-14.
  • Kucukefe, B. (2011). Intra Industry Trade in Textile and Clothing Industry: The Case of Turkey. International Review of Business Research Papers, 7 (1), 176-190.
  • Kuosku, C. (2013). How has the Swedish Intra-Industry Trade been Affected by the Eurozone Crisis?. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:632927/FULLTEXT01, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Küçükahmetoğlu, O. (2001). Endüstri İçi Ticaret ve Türkiye. Avrupa Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9 (2), 129-153.
  • Küçükahmetoğlu, O. ve Aydın, A. (2015). Türkiye’nin Ticari Hizmetler Endüstri-İçi Ticareti: Ülkeye Özgü Belirleyicilerin Tespiti Üzerine Bir Uygulama. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 13 (1), 326-347.
  • Łapińska, J. (2014). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products between Poland and EU Countries. Law and Economics Review, 5 (3), 159-172.
  • Lee, H-H. ve Lee, Y-Y. (1993). Intra-Industry Trade in Manufactures: The Case of Korea. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 129/H. 1), 159-171.
  • Leitão, N. C. (2011). Intra-Industry Trade in Tourism Services. http://store.ectap.ro/articole/601.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 10.04.2020.
  • Leitão, N. C. ve Faustino, H. C. (2008). Intra-Industry Trade in the Food Processing Sector: The Portuguese Case. Journal of Global Business and Technology, 4 (1), 49-58.
  • Li, D., Moshirian, F. ve Sim, A-B. (2003). The Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Insurance Services. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 70 (2), 269-287.
  • Licandro, O. ve Ruiz, A. N. (2010). Trade Liberalization, Competition and Growth. http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/35041/1/80610.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Loertscher, R. ve Wolter, F. (1980). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade: Among Countries and Across Industries. Review of World Economics, 116 (2), 280-293.
  • Mangır, F. ve Fidan, A. (2017). Grubel-Lloyd Endeksi İle Endüstri-İçi Ticaret Analizi: Tarım Sektörü Türkiye Örneği. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 19 (33), 45-51.
  • Manrique, G. G. (1987). Intra-Industry Trade between Developed and Developing Countries: The United States and the NICs. The Journal of Developing Areas, 21 (4), 481-494.
  • Mansouri, A. ve Ahangari A. (2020). The Impact of Neighborhood on Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade (A Spatial Panel Econometric Approach). Iranian Economic Review, 24 (1), 19-39.
  • Marius-Răzvan, S. ve Camelia, S. (2015). Analysis of the Intra-Industry Trade for the Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Sector from Romania. Procedia Economics and Finance, 22, 343-352.
  • Menon, J. ve Dixon, P. B. (1996a). Regional Trading Agreements and Intra-Industry Trade. Journal of Economic Integration, 11 (1), 1-20.
  • Menon, J. ve Dixon, P. B. (1996b). How Important is Intra-lndustry Trade in Trade Growth?. Open Economies Review, 7 (2), 161-175.
  • Mulenga, M. C. (2012). An Investigation of the Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade Between Zambia and its Trading Partners in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a00b/9184db6a3e5fd7f0138310b9e97e20ad7a96.pdf?_ga=2.199988590.1111031157.1587645205-1091075543.1582998222, Erişim Tarihi: 23.04.2020.
  • Nguyen, H. M., Quan, B. Q. M., Le, H. V. ve Tran, T. V. (2020). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade between Vietnam and Countries in TPP. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7 (1), 123-129.
  • Nilsson, L. (1997). The Measurement of Intra-Industry Trade between Unequal Partners. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 133/H. 3), 554-565.
  • Nilsson, L. (1999). Two-Way Trade between Unequal Partners: The EU and the Developing Countries. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 135/H. 1), 102-127.
  • Nowak, J-J., Petit, S. ve Sahli, M. (2013). Intra-industry Trade and Vertical Differentiation in Tourism Services. http://www.univ-valenciennes.fr/sites/default/files/pdf/wp-idp-2013-1.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 02.04.2020.
  • Piper, A. T. (2014). The Benefits, Challenges and Insights of a Dynamic Panel Assessment of Life Satisfaction. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/59556/1/MPRA_paper_59556.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.
  • Rajan, R. S. (1996). Measures of Intra-Industry Trade Reconsidered with Reference to Singapore’s Bilateral Trade with Japan and the United States. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, (Bd. 132/ H. 2), 378-389.
  • Roodman, D. (2009). How to do xtabond2: An Introduction to Difference and System GMM in Stata. The Stata Journal, 9 (1), 86-136.
  • Saparamadu, T. ve Weerasinghe, V. (2021). What Leads to Intra-Industry Trade between Sri Lanka and South Asia?. Economics and Business Quarterly Reviews, 4 (2), 1-9.
  • Sawyer, W. C., Sprinkle, R. L. ve Tochkov, K. (2010). Patterns and Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Asia. Journal of Asian Economics, 21 (5), 485-493.
  • Sen, A., Saray, M. Ozan ve Karagoz, Murat (2009). Intra-Industry Trade between Turkey and OECD Countries: A Panel Data Analysis. Zagreb International Review of Economics & Business, 12 (2), 73-86.
  • Sledziewska, K. ve Czarny, E. (2016). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade of the New Member States. Journal of Economic and Social Development, 3 (1), 147-156.
  • Şentürk, C. (2014). Endüstri İçi Ticaretin Belirleyicileri: Türkiye’nin İmalat Sanayi Endüstri İçi Ticaretine Yönelik Panel Veri Analizi. Doktora Tezi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Isparta.
  • Şentürk, C. ve Kösekahyaoğlu, L. (2014). Türkiye’nin Endüstri İçi Ticaretinin Ülke ve Politika Temelli Belirleyicilerine Yönelik Bir Uygulama. Marmara Üniversitesi İ.İ.B. Dergisi, XXXVI (II), 299-325.
  • Şimşek, N. (2008). Türkiye’nin Endüstri-İçi Dış Ticaretinin Analizi (1. Baskı). İstanbul: Beta.
  • Tharakan, P. K. M. (1984). Intra-Industry Trade Between The Industrial Countries and The Developing World. European Economic Review, 26 (1-2), 213-227.
  • Thom, R. ve McDowell, M. (1999). Measuring Marginal Intra-Industry Trade. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 135 (1), 48-61.
  • Turkcan, K. ve Ates, A. (2010). Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in the U.S. Auto-Industry. Journal of International and Global Economic Studies, 2 (2), 15-46.
  • TÜİK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu) (2018). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/disticaretapp/menu.zul, Erişim Tarihi: 13.07.2018.
  • TÜİK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu) (2020). Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri (Özel Ticaret Sistemi). https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/disticaretapp/menu.zul, Erişim Tarihi: 02.03.2020.
  • Ürüt Saygın, S. (2020). Demir Çelik Sektöründe Endüstri İçi Ticaret: Türkiye ve AB Ülkeleri Üzerine Bir Analiz. Vizyoner Dergisi, 11 (Ek), 102-116.
  • Vidya, C. T. ve Prabheesh, K. P. (2019). Intra-Industry Trade Between India and Indonesia. Bulletin of Economics and Banking, 21 (12th BMEB Call for Papers Special Issue (2019)), 511-530.
  • WB (World Bank) (2018). World Development Indicators. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators, Erişim Tarihi: 25.08.2018.
  • Webster, A., Fletcher, J., Hardwick, P. ve Morakabati, Y. (2007). Tourism and Empirical Applications of International Trade Theory: A Multi-Country Analysis. Tourism Economics, 13 (4), 657-674.
  • Youssef, A. H., El-Sheikh, A. A. ve Abonazel, M. R. (2014). Improving the Efficiency of GMM Estimators for Dynamic Panel Models. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/68675/1/MPRA_paper_68675.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 24.04.2020.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Economics
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Duygu BAYSAL KURT (Primary Author)
BAYBURT ÜNİVERSİTESİ İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-8364-0705
Türkiye


Orhan ÇOBAN
GAZİANTEP ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6137-8937
Türkiye

Early Pub Date December 21, 2021
Publication Date December 30, 2021
Application Date February 26, 2021
Acceptance Date December 18, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 4

Cite

APA Baysal Kurt, D. & Çoban, O. (2021). Türkiye ile Avrupa Birliği Ülkeleri Arasındaki İmalat Sanayi Endüstri İçi Ticaretin Belirleyicileri . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 10 (4) , 3369-3397 . DOI: 10.15869/itobiad.887238
  • 13873 13860 13861 13864138631386513866 

  • 13867 13868 13869 13870 1387122476

Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.