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Trauma Sensitive Schools: Definition, Purpose and Scope

Year 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2284 - 2304, 30.09.2020
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.713705

Abstract

Adverse childhood experiences and traumas lead to deterioration of both physical and psychological health of children and young people. As a result, adverse childhood experiences can cause illness, psychological problems, and even early deaths. In addition, traumas cause academic and behavioral difficulties for school-age children. School psychological counselors need to have knowledge about adverse childhood experiences and the effects of trauma, and be aware of the needs of students. It is also important that they provide appropriate educational opportunities for children and youth. Trauma-sensitive schools prevent students from re-traumatizing by understanding the impact of trauma on the brain, supporting students' development in the classroom. The purpose of the purpose of trauma-sensitive school work, providing scope of work that can be done and what could happen in Turkey, to provide alternatives to school to work on trauma counselors.

References

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5. Basım.) (s. 265,266). Washington, DC: American PsychiatricAssociation. Erişim adresi: https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm Allen, E. S. (2016). Childhood trauma: A comprehensive review of effects, assessments, and treatments (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Arizona State University. ABD. Birleşmiş Milletler Mülteci Yüksek Komiserliği (UNHCR). (2017). Erişim adresi: http://www.unhcr.org/tr/ Bath, H. (2008). The three pillars of trauma-informed care. Reclaiming. Children and Youth, 17(3),17-21. Belsky, J. ve Fearon, R. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk and early development: A moderational analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 293-310. Berg, J., Osher, D., Moroney, D. ve Yoder, N. (2017). The intersection of school climate and social and emotional development. (s, 29-31). Washington, D.C.: American Instututes for Resarch. Buse, N.A. ve Burker, E.J. (2013). Fostering resilience in consumers. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 44(3), 3-10. Center for Youth Wellness. (2014). An unhealthy dose of stress: The impact of adverse childhood experiences and toxic stress on childhood health and development. Erişim adresi: https://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/BTB25-PreConTrauma-04.pdf. Chu, A. T. ve Lieberman, A. F. (2010). Clinical implications of traumatic stress from birth to age five. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 569–494. Cole, S. F., Eisner, A., Gregory, M. ve Ristuccia, J. M. (2017). A vision for a trauma-sensitive school. In optimizing learning outcomes (s. 166-179). New York, NY: Routledge. Craig, S. E. (2015). Trauma-Sensitive Schools: Learning Communities Transforming Children's Lives, K 5. (s. 13). NewYork, NY: Teachers College Press. Doppelt, B. (2015). Transformational resilience: How building human resilience to climate disruption can safeguard society and increase wellbeing. (s. 43-69). New York, NY: Routledge. Downey, J.C., Gudmunson, C.G., Pang, Y.C. ve Lee, K. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences affect health risk behaviors and chronic health of Iowans. Journal of Family Violence, 32, 557-564. doi:10.1007/s10896-017-9909-4. Drury, S. (2017). Thinking across generations: Unique contributions of maternal early life and prenatal stress to infant physiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(11),922-929. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.001 Ford, J. D., Grasso, D. J., Elhai, J. D. ve Courtois. C. A. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder scientific and professional dimensions (s. 6). Oxford: Academic Press. Gherardi, S. A., Flinn, R. E. ve Jaure, V. B. (2020). Trauma‑sensitive schools and social Justice: A critical analysis. The Urban Review ,doi:10.1007/s11256-020-00553-3. Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü (GİGM). (2018). Erişim adresi: http://www.goc.gov.tr/main/ Herman, J. (2016). Travma ve iyileşme .(s. 121). (4. Basım). İstanbul: Literatür Yayınları. Holmes, C., Levy, M., Smith, A., Pinne, S. ve Neese, P. (2014). A model for creating a supportive trauma-informed culture. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1650-1659. Jordan, B. (2019). Trauma sensitive schools and psychoeducatinal evaluation. (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Marshall University. ABD. Kopala, M., Esquivel, G. ve Baptiste, L. (1994). Counseling approaches for immigrant children: Facilitating the acculturative process. The School Counselor, 41(5), 352-359. Landsverk, J.A., Burns, B.J., Stambaugh, L.F. ve Rolls Reutz, J.A. (2009). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents in foster care: Review of Research Literature. Child Welfare, 88 (1), 49-69. Longhi, D. (2015). Higher resilience and school performance among students with disproportionately high adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) at Lincoln High, in Walla Walla, Washington, 2009 to 2013. (s. 22) Olympia, WA: Participatory Research Consulting, LLC. McConnico, N., Boynton-Jarrett, R., Bailey, C. ve Nandi, M. (2016). A framework for trauma-sensitive schools. Zero to Three, 36(5), 36-44. MEB. (2019). Psikososyal koruma, önleme ve krize müdahale hizmetleri yönergesi. Erişim adresi: https://orgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2019_04/11165830_psikososyal_koruma_Önleme_krize_müdahale_hizmetleri_yönergesi.pdf Mikton, C. ve Butchart, A. (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(5), 353-361. Milwaukee Public Schools. (2015). Trauma & mental health. Erişim adresi: http://mps.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/en/Families/Family -Services/Intervention---PBIS/Trauma.htm. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2003). Complex trauma in children and adolescents: White paper from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Complex Trauma Task Force. Los Angeles, CA ve Duncan, NC. Erişim adresi: http//:www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_materials/ComplexTrauma_All.pdf. Navalta, C.P., McGee, L. ve Underwood, J. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences, brain development, and mental health: A call for neurocounseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 40(3), 266-278. doi:10.17744.mehc.40.3.07 . Oral, R., Ramirez, M., Coohey, C., Nakada, S., Walz, A., Kuntz, A., Benolt, J. ve Peek-Asa, C. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and trauma informed care: The future of health care. Pediatric Research, 79, 227-233. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.197 Osofsky, J. D. ve Lieberman, A. F. (2011). A call for integrating a mental health perspective into systems of care for abused and neglected infants and young children. American Psychologist, 66(2), 120–128. Perry, B. (2007). Stress, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorders in children: An introduction. (s,1-15). The Child Trauma Academy. Erişim adresi: https://childtrauma.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PTSD_Caregivers.pdf. Philadelphia ACE Project. (2016). Incorporating trauma informed practice and ACEs into professional curricula: A toolkit. (ss,1-41). Philadelphia, PA: Author. ABD Plumb, J. L., Bush, K. A. ve Kersevich, S. E. (2016). Trauma-sensitive schools: An evidence-based approach. School Social Work Journal, 40(2), 37-60. Porche, M.V., Zaff, J. F. ve Pan, J. (2017). Barriers to success: Moving toward a deeper understanding of adversity’s effect on adolescents. Washington, DC: Author Rousseau, C., Drapeau, A. ve Corin, E. (1996). School performance and emotional problems in refugee children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(2), 239-251. Sciaraffa, M.A., Zeanah, P.D. ve Zeanah, C.H. (2018). Understanding and promoting resilience in the context of adverse childhood experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 343-353. doi:10.1007/s10643-017-0869-3 Shonkoff, J.P., Boyce, W.T. ve McEwen, B.S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(21), 2252-2259. Teicher, M. (2000). Wounds that won’t heal: The neurobiology of child abuse. Cerebrum: The Dana Forum on Brain Science, 2(4), 50-67. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK). (2018). Göç İstatistikleri. Erişim adresi: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1067 Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK). (2018). Ölüm nedeni istatistikleri, 2018. Erişim adresi: http://tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=30626. UNİCEF. (2010). Türkiye’de Çocuk İstismarı ve Aile İçi Şiddet Araştırması. Erişim adresi: http://www.unicef.org.tr/bilgimerkezidetay.aspx?id=84. Wolpow, R., Johnson, M. M., Hertel, R. ve Kincaid, S. (2009). The heart of learning and teaching: Compassion, resiliency, and academic success., (s. 9-11). Washington,WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) Compassionate Schools. Yazar, M. E. ve Boz, B. (2019). 2010-2016 Yılları arasında Pamukkale Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi’ne başvuran cinsel istismar ve cinsel saldırı olgularının değerlendirilmesi. Adli Tıp Bülteni, 24(1), 43-50.

Travma Duyarlı Okullar: Tanımı, Amacı ve Kapsamı

Year 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2284 - 2304, 30.09.2020
https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.713705

Abstract

Olumsuz çocukluk deneyimleri ve travmalar, çocukların ve gençlerin hem fiziksel hem de psikolojik sağlığının bozulmasına yol açmaktadır. Bunun sonucu olarak, olumsuz çocukluk deneyimleri hastalıklara, psikolojik problemlere hatta erken ölümlere bile neden olabilmektedir. Ayrıca travmalar, okul çağındaki çocuklar için akademik ve davranışsal zorlukların yaşamasına neden olmaktadır. Okul psikolojik danışmanlarının, olumsuz çocukluk deneyimleri ve travmanın etkileri konusunda bilgiye sahip olmaları, öğrencilerin ihtiyaçlarının farkında olmaları gereklidir. Aynı zamanda çocuk ve gençler için uygun eğitim olanaklarını sağlamaları da önemlidir. Travma duyarlı okullar, travmanın beyin üzerindeki etkisini anlayarak öğrencilerin sınıf ortamında gelişimlerini destekleyerek, yeniden travmatize olmaları engellemektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı travma duyarlı okulların amacını, kapsamı ve Türkiye’de yapılabilecek çalışmaların neler olabileceğini sunarak, okul psikolojik danışmanlarına travma konusundaki çalışmalarına alternatifler sunmaktır.  

References

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5. Basım.) (s. 265,266). Washington, DC: American PsychiatricAssociation. Erişim adresi: https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm Allen, E. S. (2016). Childhood trauma: A comprehensive review of effects, assessments, and treatments (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Arizona State University. ABD. Birleşmiş Milletler Mülteci Yüksek Komiserliği (UNHCR). (2017). Erişim adresi: http://www.unhcr.org/tr/ Bath, H. (2008). The three pillars of trauma-informed care. Reclaiming. Children and Youth, 17(3),17-21. Belsky, J. ve Fearon, R. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk and early development: A moderational analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 293-310. Berg, J., Osher, D., Moroney, D. ve Yoder, N. (2017). The intersection of school climate and social and emotional development. (s, 29-31). Washington, D.C.: American Instututes for Resarch. Buse, N.A. ve Burker, E.J. (2013). Fostering resilience in consumers. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 44(3), 3-10. Center for Youth Wellness. (2014). An unhealthy dose of stress: The impact of adverse childhood experiences and toxic stress on childhood health and development. Erişim adresi: https://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/BTB25-PreConTrauma-04.pdf. Chu, A. T. ve Lieberman, A. F. (2010). Clinical implications of traumatic stress from birth to age five. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 569–494. Cole, S. F., Eisner, A., Gregory, M. ve Ristuccia, J. M. (2017). A vision for a trauma-sensitive school. In optimizing learning outcomes (s. 166-179). New York, NY: Routledge. Craig, S. E. (2015). Trauma-Sensitive Schools: Learning Communities Transforming Children's Lives, K 5. (s. 13). NewYork, NY: Teachers College Press. Doppelt, B. (2015). Transformational resilience: How building human resilience to climate disruption can safeguard society and increase wellbeing. (s. 43-69). New York, NY: Routledge. Downey, J.C., Gudmunson, C.G., Pang, Y.C. ve Lee, K. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences affect health risk behaviors and chronic health of Iowans. Journal of Family Violence, 32, 557-564. doi:10.1007/s10896-017-9909-4. Drury, S. (2017). Thinking across generations: Unique contributions of maternal early life and prenatal stress to infant physiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(11),922-929. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.001 Ford, J. D., Grasso, D. J., Elhai, J. D. ve Courtois. C. A. (2015). Posttraumatic stress disorder scientific and professional dimensions (s. 6). Oxford: Academic Press. Gherardi, S. A., Flinn, R. E. ve Jaure, V. B. (2020). Trauma‑sensitive schools and social Justice: A critical analysis. The Urban Review ,doi:10.1007/s11256-020-00553-3. Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü (GİGM). (2018). Erişim adresi: http://www.goc.gov.tr/main/ Herman, J. (2016). Travma ve iyileşme .(s. 121). (4. Basım). İstanbul: Literatür Yayınları. Holmes, C., Levy, M., Smith, A., Pinne, S. ve Neese, P. (2014). A model for creating a supportive trauma-informed culture. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1650-1659. Jordan, B. (2019). Trauma sensitive schools and psychoeducatinal evaluation. (Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Marshall University. ABD. Kopala, M., Esquivel, G. ve Baptiste, L. (1994). Counseling approaches for immigrant children: Facilitating the acculturative process. The School Counselor, 41(5), 352-359. Landsverk, J.A., Burns, B.J., Stambaugh, L.F. ve Rolls Reutz, J.A. (2009). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents in foster care: Review of Research Literature. Child Welfare, 88 (1), 49-69. Longhi, D. (2015). Higher resilience and school performance among students with disproportionately high adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) at Lincoln High, in Walla Walla, Washington, 2009 to 2013. (s. 22) Olympia, WA: Participatory Research Consulting, LLC. McConnico, N., Boynton-Jarrett, R., Bailey, C. ve Nandi, M. (2016). A framework for trauma-sensitive schools. Zero to Three, 36(5), 36-44. MEB. (2019). Psikososyal koruma, önleme ve krize müdahale hizmetleri yönergesi. Erişim adresi: https://orgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2019_04/11165830_psikososyal_koruma_Önleme_krize_müdahale_hizmetleri_yönergesi.pdf Mikton, C. ve Butchart, A. (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(5), 353-361. Milwaukee Public Schools. (2015). Trauma & mental health. Erişim adresi: http://mps.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/en/Families/Family -Services/Intervention---PBIS/Trauma.htm. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2003). Complex trauma in children and adolescents: White paper from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Complex Trauma Task Force. Los Angeles, CA ve Duncan, NC. Erişim adresi: http//:www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_materials/ComplexTrauma_All.pdf. Navalta, C.P., McGee, L. ve Underwood, J. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences, brain development, and mental health: A call for neurocounseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 40(3), 266-278. doi:10.17744.mehc.40.3.07 . Oral, R., Ramirez, M., Coohey, C., Nakada, S., Walz, A., Kuntz, A., Benolt, J. ve Peek-Asa, C. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and trauma informed care: The future of health care. Pediatric Research, 79, 227-233. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.197 Osofsky, J. D. ve Lieberman, A. F. (2011). A call for integrating a mental health perspective into systems of care for abused and neglected infants and young children. American Psychologist, 66(2), 120–128. Perry, B. (2007). Stress, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorders in children: An introduction. (s,1-15). The Child Trauma Academy. Erişim adresi: https://childtrauma.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PTSD_Caregivers.pdf. Philadelphia ACE Project. (2016). Incorporating trauma informed practice and ACEs into professional curricula: A toolkit. (ss,1-41). Philadelphia, PA: Author. ABD Plumb, J. L., Bush, K. A. ve Kersevich, S. E. (2016). Trauma-sensitive schools: An evidence-based approach. School Social Work Journal, 40(2), 37-60. Porche, M.V., Zaff, J. F. ve Pan, J. (2017). Barriers to success: Moving toward a deeper understanding of adversity’s effect on adolescents. Washington, DC: Author Rousseau, C., Drapeau, A. ve Corin, E. (1996). School performance and emotional problems in refugee children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(2), 239-251. Sciaraffa, M.A., Zeanah, P.D. ve Zeanah, C.H. (2018). Understanding and promoting resilience in the context of adverse childhood experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 343-353. doi:10.1007/s10643-017-0869-3 Shonkoff, J.P., Boyce, W.T. ve McEwen, B.S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(21), 2252-2259. Teicher, M. (2000). Wounds that won’t heal: The neurobiology of child abuse. Cerebrum: The Dana Forum on Brain Science, 2(4), 50-67. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK). (2018). Göç İstatistikleri. Erişim adresi: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1067 Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK). (2018). Ölüm nedeni istatistikleri, 2018. Erişim adresi: http://tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=30626. UNİCEF. (2010). Türkiye’de Çocuk İstismarı ve Aile İçi Şiddet Araştırması. Erişim adresi: http://www.unicef.org.tr/bilgimerkezidetay.aspx?id=84. Wolpow, R., Johnson, M. M., Hertel, R. ve Kincaid, S. (2009). The heart of learning and teaching: Compassion, resiliency, and academic success., (s. 9-11). Washington,WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) Compassionate Schools. Yazar, M. E. ve Boz, B. (2019). 2010-2016 Yılları arasında Pamukkale Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi’ne başvuran cinsel istismar ve cinsel saldırı olgularının değerlendirilmesi. Adli Tıp Bülteni, 24(1), 43-50.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Psychology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Fatma ÖZ (Primary Author)
DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5406-7786
Türkiye

Publication Date September 30, 2020
Application Date April 2, 2020
Acceptance Date July 5, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

APA Öz, F. (2020). Travma Duyarlı Okullar: Tanımı, Amacı ve Kapsamı . İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 9 (3) , 2284-2304 . DOI: 10.15869/itobiad.713705
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Turkey Journal of Theological Studies is under the İtobiad.